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Horst J. Struckmeyer

When the world market price for a country’s major export product increases substantially over a short period of time, it has serious domestic repercussions. This article examines the economic implications of the recent significant increases of international coffee prices for Central America which produces about 12 per cent of the world’s exportable production of coffee. Most of the policy measures suggested by the author to make the best long-term use of the increased export income have implications for any country whose economy depends heavily on a single product.

MANUEL GUITIAN

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International Monetary Fund

Nicaragua's economic performance in 2010 was satisfactory. Real GDP grew, supported by strong consumption and investment. Bank credit started recovering while the financial system remained liquid and profitable. Exchange-rate and monetary policy have contributed to macroeconomic stability. The authorities plan to improve public financial management and also to adopt a legal framework and remain committed to contain the macroeconomic risks from external aid flows. They also welcomed the sixth review and Financing Assurances under the Extended Credit Facility (ECF) arrangement.

International Monetary Fund. Western Hemisphere Dept.

This 2013 Article IV Consultation highlights that during the past two years, macroeconomic developments in Nicaragua have been generally favorable. Real GDP grew by an average of 5¼ percent during 2011–2012, and the annual average inflation was 7¼ percent during the same period. Looking ahead, the macroeconomic outlook also remains broadly positive. Real GDP is expected to grow by 4¼ percent in 2013 and then stabilize at its potential level of 4 percent over the medium-term. Inflation is projected to remain at about 7 percent supported by the crawling-peg exchange rate system that has helped anchor inflation expectations.

International Monetary Fund
Nicaragua’s report on the Observance of Standards and Codes examines Data Module, response by the authorities, and detailed assessments using the data quality assessment framework. The Ministry of Finance and Public Credit provides an institutional environment for compiling budgetary transactions data but not for compiling statistics for general government and/or nonfinancial public enterprises. The environment fosters good arrangements for data sharing among agencies involved in government finance statistics compilation and dissemination.
International Monetary Fund
This 2003 Article IV Consultation for Hungary highlights that developments in growth and inflation were broadly positive in 2002. Buoyed by domestic demand, real GDP growth increased to 3.5 percent (year-over-year) in the second half of 2002 from 3.0 percent in the first half. Headline inflation declined from its recent peak of 10.8 percent in May of 2001 to 4.8 percent at end-2002. The external current account deficit widened in 2002, although foreign direct investment fell off sharply.
International Monetary Fund
Nicaragua's economic performance in 2010 was satisfactory. Real GDP grew, supported by strong consumption and investment. Bank credit started recovering while the financial system remained liquid and profitable. Exchange-rate and monetary policy have contributed to macroeconomic stability. The authorities plan to improve public financial management and also to adopt a legal framework and remain committed to contain the macroeconomic risks from external aid flows. They also welcomed the sixth review and Financing Assurances under the Extended Credit Facility (ECF) arrangement.
Mr. Geoffrey J Bannister, Mr. Jarkko Turunen, and Malin Gardberg
Despite significant strides in financial development over the past decades, financial dollarization, as reflected in elevated shares of foreign currency deposits and credit in the banking system, remains common in developing economies. We study the impact of financial dollarization, differentiating across foreign currency deposits and credit on financial depth, access and efficiency for a large sample of emerging market and developing countries over the past two decades. Panel regressions estimated using system GMM show that deposit dollarization has a negative impact on financial deepening on average. This negative impact is dampened in cases with past periods of high inflation. There is also some evidence that dollarization hampers financial efficiency. The results suggest that policy efforts to reduce dollarization can spur faster and safer financial development.
Mr. Atish R. Ghosh and Mr. Steven T Phillips
Although few would doubt that very high inflation is bad for growth, there is much less agreement about moderate inflation’s effects. Using panel regressions and a nonlinear specification, this paper finds a statistically and economically significant negative relationship between inflation and growth. This relationship holds at all but the lowest inflation rates and is robust across various samples and specifications. The method of binary recursive trees identifies inflation as one the most important statistical determinants of growth. Finally, while there are short-run growth costs of disinflation, these are only relevant for the most severe disinflations, or when the initial inflation rate is well within the single-digit range.