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International Monetary Fund. Research Dept.
This paper discusses various foreign payments practices in the United States. Most foreign payments in the United States are, therefore, done along traditional lines in whatever manner. Several nontraditional practices, however, have developed in recent years as the result of trade and payments restrictions established by foreign Governments. The amount and type of exchange sold by the US banks to their customers are limited only, if at all, by regulations abroad or by the banks' own limitations. In making or receiving foreign payments, the US banks deal generally with three types of customers which are, in the order of their importance: exporters and importers, individuals or corporations desiring to make or receive nontrade financial payments, and speculators. Foreign payments for account of individuals are usually small individually however, in the aggregate, they represent an important function of the banks located in the larger cities with a considerable foreign-born population.
International Monetary Fund. External Relations Dept.
The Web edition of the IMF Survey is updated several times a week, and contains a wealth of articles about topical policy and economic issues in the news. Access the latest IMF research, read interviews, and listen to podcasts given by top IMF economists on important issues in the global economy. www.imf.org/external/pubs/ft/survey/so/home.aspx
International Monetary Fund. External Relations Dept.
The Web edition of the IMF Survey is updated several times a week, and contains a wealth of articles about topical policy and economic issues in the news. Access the latest IMF research, read interviews, and listen to podcasts given by top IMF economists on important issues in the global economy. www.imf.org/external/pubs/ft/survey/so/home.aspx
Ms. Maureen Kidd and William Joseph Crandall
Revenue authorities (RAs) have been adopted by some countries as an alternative delivery model for improved revenue administration. They are sometimes seen as a possible solution to problems such as low rates of tax compliance, ineffective tax administration staff, and corruption. The paper discusses RAs as a governance model, from the perspective of revenue administration and the almost universal desire to improve performance and compliance with the law. It compiles and analyses features of the model, examines reasons why revenue authorities were established, and explores the extent to which countries have evaluated the success of the model. It also assesses countries' own perceptions about how this model may have contributed to tax administration reform. Further, the paper discusses data collection difficulties in carrying out an assessment using econometric analysis, and the problem of attributing changes in performance to a particular governance model. The paper concludes that while there are subjective perceptions among countries with revenue authorities that their model has led to improved revenue administration and has spurred modernization, there is no objective analysis that countries with RAs have performed better in this regard than countries without RAs.