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Jacques R. Artus

This paper reviews the increasing private capital flows to less developed countries. The share of developing countries in the foreign direct investment is small, perhaps less than 30 percent of the total. The effects of this decline in the volume of foreign investment and the continued problem of capital flight have been aggravated by the serious fall in commercial bank lending to developing countries as a group and by a decline in official development assistance.

International Monetary Fund. Western Hemisphere Dept.

This paper assesses the impact of high household debt on economic volatility in Canada. The debt per se may not necessarily be a risk for economic activity; it can amplify other shocks as well. A few studies have emphasized the link between the growth of household debt before 2007 and the severity of the Great Recession. Economies with debt tend to experience more severe housing busts and recessions. If household debt ratios are not stabilized, the vulnerability of the Canadian economy is likely to be high.

International Monetary Fund. Western Hemisphere Dept.

After several years of solid growth, real GDP growth decelerated to 1.2 percent in 2015, as energy companies slashed investment spending in response to the decline in oil prices. Growth is expected to rebound in 2016, supported by exchange rate depreciation and accommodative monetary and fiscal policies, but uncertainty about oil prices, challenges in sustaining the global recovery, and elevated domestic vulnerabilities suggest risks to the outlook are tilted to the downside. A new government, led by Prime Minister Trudeau, took office in late 2015.

Mr. Jeromin Zettelmeyer, Mr. Martin Mühleisen, and Mr. Shaun K. Roache
In a global economy beset by concerns over a growth recession, financial volatility, and rising inflation, countries in the Western Hemisphere have been among the few bright spots in recent years. This has not come as a surprise to those following the significant progress achieved by many countries in recent years, both in macroeconomic management and on the structural and institutional front. Hence, there can be little doubt, as this book argues, that economic and financial linkages between Latin America, the United States, and other important regions of the world economy have undergone profound change.
Ms. Olga Ilinichna Stankova
The paper provides an overall view of communications across various areas of economic policy, aiming to help country authorities as they increasingly use communications as a policy tool in its own right. The paper identifies frontier communications challenges, drawing on a large body of research on the salient issues. Although communications can never be a substitute for good policies, economic reforms are more likely to fail or even be reversed if they are not understood or accepted by those whom they affect.
Mr. Ahmed I Al-Darwish, Naif Alghaith, Mr. Alberto Behar, Mr. Tim Callen, Mr. Pragyan Deb, Mr. Amgad Hegazy, Padamja Khandelwal, Ms. Malika Pant, and Mr. Haonan Qu
Saudi Arabia: Tackling Emerging Economic Challenges to Sustain Strong Growth