Two dual exchange rale regimes are compared. Under one, the official market clears through changes in international reserves. Under the other, the central bank implements a rationing scheme so as to keep international reserves constant. The paper discusses the effects on inflation, the balance of payments, the real exchange rate, and the spread between the free and the official exchange rate of various economic policies, including exchange rate policy, fiscal policy, and unification of the exchange markets. It concludes that the steady-state effects for most of those policies are qualitatively the same under both regimes.[JEL F31, F41]
This paper reviews the increasing private capital flows to less developed countries. The share of developing countries in the foreign direct investment is small, perhaps less than 30 percent of the total. The effects of this decline in the volume of foreign investment and the continued problem of capital flight have been aggravated by the serious fall in commercial bank lending to developing countries as a group and by a decline in official development assistance.