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International Monetary Fund

Abstract

En los últimos años, el FMI ha participado activamente en iniciativas de cooperación internacional para evitar el abuso de los sistemas financieros nacionales y proteger y mejorar la integridad del sistema financiero internacional. Más allá de los esfuerzos por combatir el lavado de dinero, el FMI ha aplicado su participación también a la lucha contra el financiamiento del terrorismo. Este manual facilitará la prestación de asistencia técnica pertinente al proporcionar un compendio de materiales esenciales para los funcionarios que tienen a su cargo la redacción de leyes de represión de estas actividades de financiamiento. Se presentan las normas y obligaciones internacionales pertinentes, junto con ejemplos de la legislación vigente orientada a cumplir con dichas normas y obligaciones. Los temas tratados en este libro son relevantes para todos los países, independientemente de su situación geopolítica.

Salim M. Darbar, R. Barry Johnston, and Mary G. Zephirin

This paper highlights that the Washington Consensus helped fill the need for an economic policy framework following the discrediting of central planning and import-substitution trade strategies. Latin American governments championed the Consensus in the early 1990s, and the policy agenda delivered some of the things it was supposed to—healthier budgets, lower inflation, lower external debt ratios, and economic growth. But unemployment rose in many countries and poverty remained widespread, while the emphasis on market openness made states vulnerable to the side effects of globalization.

International Monetary Fund. Legal Dept.

This report summarizes the anti–money laundering and combating the financing of terrorism measures in place in Canada. The Canadian authorities have a good understanding of most of Canada’s money laundering and terrorism financing risks. Some financial intelligence and other relevant information are accessible by the Financial Transactions and Reports Analysis Centre of Canada (FINTRAC); law enforcement agencies have greater access. FINTRAC receives a wide range of information, which it uses adequately, but some factors limit the scope and depth of the analysis it is authorized to conduct.

International Monetary Fund. Legal Dept.

This report evaluates the observance of standards and codes on Financial Action Task Force recommendations for anti–money laundering and combating the financing of terrorism (AML/CFT) in Canada. The findings reveal that the Canadian authorities have a good understanding of most of Canada’s money laundering and terrorism financing risks. AML/CFT cooperation and coordination are generally good at the policy and operational levels. All high-risk areas are covered by AML/CFT measures, except legal counsel, legal firms, and Quebec notaries. This constitutes a significant loophole in Canada’s AML/CFT framework. Law enforcement results are not commensurate with the money-laundering risk, and asset recovery is low.

International Monetary Fund

The paper presents Canada’s report on the Observance of Standards and Codes on the Financial Action Task Force (FATF) recommendations for Anti-Money Laundering (AML) and Combating the Financing of Terrorism (CFT). Canada has strengthened its overall AML/CFT regime since its last FATF mutual evaluation (1997) by implementing a number of changes both in terms of statutory amendments and structural changes. The most important developments have been the enactment of the Proceeds of Crime and Terrorist Financing Act and the creation of the Canadian Financial Intelligence Unit in 2000.

International Monetary Fund

The Canadian monetary and fiscal policies have remained accommodative, reflecting in large measure the effective response to the crisis. Canada is expected to set the appropriate policy mix in the future, at a time of high uncertainty and significant external headwinds. Given the advanced stage of the recovery, a still-large budget deficit, and the need to address long-term fiscal challenges, fiscal policy has moved toward a tightening stance. Resilient household credit has helped sustain private consumption and the construction sector during the crisis.

International Monetary Fund. Western Hemisphere Dept.

After recovering rapidly from the Great Recession, the Canadian economy has slowed down in 2012. Growth weakened in the first three quarters of 2012, and recent indicators have suggested that the pace of economic expansion remained subpar in the fourth quarter. The fiscal policy has continued to be a drag on growth, as the stimulus is being withdrawn. These have been only partly offset by an improvement in financial conditions in 2012. Growth is expected to gain new momentum over 2013.

International Monetary Fund. Western Hemisphere Dept.

This 2013 Article IV Consultation highlights that the Canadian economy strengthened in 2013 after a subdued performance in 2012, but the underlying growth has remained modest. Despite the depreciating exchange rate, non-energy exports remained well below the levels reached after earlier recessions. The housing market has cooled, owing in part to macro-prudential measures adopted in the past. Economic growth is expected to accelerate to 2¼ percent in 2014, up from an estimated 1¾ percent in 2013. Canada’s export growth should benefit from the projected pick-up in U.S. growth in 2014, boosting business investment.

International Monetary Fund. Western Hemisphere Dept.

KEY ISSUESEconomic outlook: The Canadian economy has expanded at a solid pace since 2013, butrebalancing of growth away from household consumption and residential investment remains incomplete, owing mainly to weak business investment. Growth momentum is expected to continue alongside a strengthening U.S. recovery despite substantially lower oil prices. Risks to the outlook are modestly tilted to the downside given sluggish global growth, effects unfolding from sharply lower oil prices, and housing market risks. Key domestic vulnerabilities in housing markets and the household sector remain elevated but contained fro m a financial stability perspective.Policies for balanced and sustained recovery: An appropriate policy mix should help facilitate rebalancing to generate a broader and more durable recovery, reduce domestic vulnerabilities, and further strengthen financial system resilience:• Macro policies: Monetary policy can remain accommodative for now given that inflation expectations are well-anchored, stronger business investment is still a missing link, risks to an export-led recovery are to the downside, and housing markets are expected to cool as U.S. interest rates rise and with lower oil prices. Fiscal consolidation should proceed in light of longer-term challenges at the provincial level, but federal authorities should consider adopting a neutral stance going forward, using available fiscal resources for targeted measures to support growth. Structural policies to improve productivity in the economy would increasingly need to complement this policy mix.• Housing sector and financial sector policies: Further macro-prudential policy action may be needed to guard against risks to financial stability if household balance sheet vulnerabilities resume rising. Reforms to limit government exposure to housing markets and encourage appropriate risk retention by the private sector should continue. Improving complex coordination across federal and provincial authorities in supervision and stress- testing of depository institutions and strengthening macro-prudential and crisis management frameworks will reinforce the resilience of Canada’s financial system.Policy response to past advice: Since the 2013 Article IV Consultation mission, the authorities have taken some further steps to limit taxpayer exposure to the housing sector and strengthen mortgage insurance underwriting practices. Some work on FSAP recommendations has also started to enhance stress testing, address data gaps, and towards establishing a cooperative capital markets system. The authorities have also intensified theirefforts towards addressing interprovincial trade barriers and export diversification.

International Monetary Fund. Western Hemisphere Dept.

After several years of solid growth, real GDP growth decelerated to 1.2 percent in 2015, as energy companies slashed investment spending in response to the decline in oil prices. Growth is expected to rebound in 2016, supported by exchange rate depreciation and accommodative monetary and fiscal policies, but uncertainty about oil prices, challenges in sustaining the global recovery, and elevated domestic vulnerabilities suggest risks to the outlook are tilted to the downside. A new government, led by Prime Minister Trudeau, took office in late 2015.