Mr. Tobias Adrian, Mr. Douglas Laxton, and Mr. Maurice Obstfeld
Contributors working at the International Monetary Fund present 14 chapters on the development of monetary policy over the past quarter century through the lens of the evolution of inflation-forecast targeting. They describe the principles and practices of inflation-forecast targeting, including managing expectations, the implementation of a forecasting and policy analysis system, monetary operations, monetary policy and financial stability, financial conditions, and transparency and communications; aspects of inflation-forecast targeting in Canada, the Czech Republic, India, and the US; and monetary policy challenges faced by low-income countries and how inflation-forecast targeting can provide an anchor in countries with different economic structures and circumstances.
The balance of payments, in its modern sense, may be defined as a system of accounts in which the accounting entity is a country or region and the entries refer to all economic transactions between residents of the country or region and residents of the rest of the world. The term “economic transactions” is used here in a broad sense to include transfers of goods, the rendering of services, and transfers of capital items, whether or not a quid pro quo is given. The quid pro quo may take the form either of payment in money or another capital item (including a promise to pay) or of payment in kind, that is in the form of goods and services. Transactions in which there is a quid pro quo may be described as two-way transactions, and those in which there is not, as one-way transactions. Two-way transactions are recorded by means of equal credit and debit entries to indicate the two sides of the transaction. For one-way transactions, the one side is recorded in the usual way and the double-entry system is preserved by offsetting this entry by a contra-entry under a heading described as “donations” or “unilateral transfers.”
The need to develop domestic securities markets has, following the recent international financial crises, increasingly attracted the attention of national and international policymakers.1 This has resulted in the issuance of a number of policy recommendations by various organizations, such as the Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation (APEC) collaborative Initiative on Development of Domestic Bond Markets. The issue of government debt management is intrinsically linked to government securities market development. Work is currently under way on this issue at the International Monetary Fund (IMF) and the World Bank, where guidelines have been developed to guide government actions as an issuer, thereby steering development of the government securities market.2 This handbook on government securities market development seeks to fill an existing gap between specific technical studies about securities market microstructure and publications that offer general policy recommendations about securities market development. The handbook integrates these two perspectives by outlining important issues confronting senior strategic policymakers or those implementing policies to support development of a government securities market.
Tax policy has significant impact on financial decisions of investors and firms. Certain tax policies, such as transaction tax, can stifle the development of capital markets. New financial products, such as mutual funds and asset-backed securities, will have difficulty in competing against traditional substitutes without proper tax treatment. Thus, a well-developed financial system requires a well-designed tax policy.