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International Monetary Fund. Monetary and Capital Markets Department

Abstract

Prepared by staff from the Monetary and Capital Markets Department (in consultation with other departments): The authors of this chapter are Anna Ilyina (Division Chief), Evan Papageorgiou (Deputy Division Chief), Sergei Antoshin, Yingyuan Chen, Fabio Cortes, Rohit Goel, Phakawa Jeasakul, Sanjay Hazarika, Kelly Eckhold, Frank Hespeler, Henry Hoyle, Piyusha Khot, Sheheryar Malik, Thomas Piontek, Akihiko Yokoyama, and Xingmi Zheng, under the guidance of Fabio Natalucci (Deputy Director). Magally Bernal and Andre Vasquez were responsible for word processing and the production of this report.

International Monetary Fund. Monetary and Capital Markets Department

Abstract

Prepared by staff from the Monetary and Capital Markets Department (in consultation with other departments): The authors of this chapter are Dimitris Drakopoulos, Rohit Goel, Evan Papageorgiou (team leader), Dmitri Petrov, Patrick Schneider, Can Sever, and Jef Williams, under the guidance of Fabio Natalucci and Anna Ilyina. Magally Bernal and Andre Vasquez were responsible for word processing and the production of this report.

International Monetary Fund. Monetary and Capital Markets Department

Abstract

The authors of this chapter are Andrea Deghi, Ken Zhi Gan, Tom Piontek, Dulani Seneviratne, Tomohiro Tsuruga, and Jérôme Vandenbussche (team leader), with contributions from Germán Villegas Bauer, under the guidance of Fabio Natalucci and Mahvash Qureshi. Jeremy Stein served as an expert advisor.

International Monetary Fund. Monetary and Capital Markets Department

Abstract

Prepared by staff from the Monetary and Capital Markets Department (in consultation with other departments): The authors of this chapter are John Caparusso and Claudio Raddatz (lead authors), Yingyuan Chen, Dan Cheng, Xiaodan Ding, Ibrahim Ergen, Marco Gross, Ivo Krznar, Dimitrios Laliotis, Fabian Lipinsky, Pavel Lukyantsau, Elizabeth Mahoney, Nicola Pierri, and Tomohiro Tsuruga with contributions from Hee Kyong Chon, Caio Ferreira, Alejandro Lopez, and Luc Riedweg under the guidance of Fabio Natalucci (Deputy Director). Magally Bernal was responsible for word processing and the production of this report.

International Monetary Fund. Monetary and Capital Markets Department

Abstract

The authors of this chapter are Zhi Ken Gan, Pierpaolo Grippa, Pierre Guérin, Oksana Khadarina, Samuel Mann, Felix Suntheim (team lead), and Yizhi Xu, with contributions from Alan Feng, Germán Villegas Bauer, and Julia Xueliang Wang, under the guidance of Fabio Natalucci, Mahvash Qureshi, and Jérôme Vandenbussche. Harrison Hong served as an expert advisor.

MEAD OVER

The AIDS epidemic is straining the limited resources available to many developing country governments. How can governments provide support to those affected by AIDS without neglecting others in need or abandoning important development goals?

David E. Bloom, Daniel Cadarette, and JP Sevilla

Finance & Development, June 2018

International Monetary Fund. Monetary and Capital Markets Department

Abstract

Near-term global financial stability risks have been contained as an unprecedented policy response to the coronavirus (COVID-19) pandemic has helped avert a financial meltdown and maintain the flow of credit to the economy. For the first time, many emerging market central banks have launched asset purchase programs to support the smooth functioning of financial markets and the overall economy. But the outlook remains highly uncertain, and vulnerabilities are rising, representing potential headwinds to recovery. The report presents an assessment of the real-financial disconnect, as well as forward-looking analysis of nonfinancial firms, banks, and emerging market capital flows. After the outbreak, firms’ cash flows were adversely affected as economic activity declined sharply. More vulnerable firms—those with weaker solvency and liquidity positions and smaller size—experienced greater financial stress than their peers in the early stages of the crisis. As the crisis unfolds, corporate liquidity pressures may morph into insolvencies, especially if the recovery is delayed. Small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs) are more vulnerable than large firms with access to capital markets. Although the global banking system is well capitalized, some banking systems may experience capital shortfalls in an adverse scenario, even with the currently deployed policy measures. The report also assesses the pandemic’s impact on firms’ environmental performance to gauge the extent to which the crisis may result in a reversal of the gains posted in recent years.

International Monetary Fund. Western Hemisphere Dept.
Barbados has made good progress in implementing its Economic Recovery and Transformation (BERT) plan to restore fiscal and debt sustainability, rebuild reserves, and increase growth. International reserves have increased to US$1.3 billion at end-March 2021, supported by IFI loans. This, and a successful 2018-19 public debt restructuring, have helped rebuild confidence in the country’s macroeconomic framework. However, a virtual standstill in the tourism sector during the pandemic took a significant toll in 2020, with the economy contracting by 18 percent. While Barbados was successful in containing the outbreak during 2020, a surge in COVID-19 cases in early 2021 resulted in the country’s second national lockdown in February. Economic growth is projected at 3 percent for 2021 premised on a modest recovery of tourism in the second half of the year, but the outlook remains highly uncertain, and risks are elevated, also in light of the possible impact of recent volcanic activity in neighboring Saint Vincent.