Pursuant to Section III, Paragraph 2 of the Instrument to Establish the Enhanced Structural Adjustment Facility Trust, the International Monetary Fund, in its capacity as Trustee of that Trust, approves the agreement for borrowing from the Government of Canada in terms of the draft agreement set out in the attachment to EBS/95/52 (3/24/95), and authorizes the Managing Director to take such action as is necessary to conclude and implement the agreement.
The Fund as Trustee of the ESAF Trust shall refrain from making further drawings under a borrowing agreement for the Loan Account of the ESAF Trust that was entered into before November 30, 1993 if any principal amount under that agreement is not paid within ten days after the due date, pending consultation with the creditor, provided however, that the Trustee may resume drawings under the agreement once arrears to the creditor have been paid.
1. Pursuant to Article V, Section 2(b), as set forth in the letter of the National Bank of Belgium (the “Bank”) dated April 19, 1994 (Annex I), the Fund amends the “Administered Account Belgium” established with the International Monetary Fund pursuant to Executive Board Decision No. 8933-(88/117) ESAF, adopted July 27, 1988. The proposed amended Instrument, to allow for a further deposit, is set out in the attachment to the letter of the Bank.
1. Pursuant to Article V, Section 2(b), at the request of the Bank of Botswana (the “Bank”) as set forth in its letter dated May 19, 1994 (Annex I), the Fund adopts the Instrument to establish an account for the administration by the Fund of the deposit to be provided by the Bank on the terms and conditions set forth in the Instrument that is annexed to this decision (Attachment to Annex I).
Pursuant to Section IV, Paragraph 3 of the Instrument to Establish the Enhanced Structural Adjustment Facility Trust, the International Monetary Fund, in its capacity as Trustee of that Trust, approves the draft agreement and promissory note for an investment by the Bank Negara Malaysia with the Subsidy Account of the Trust as set out in Attachments I and II to EBS/94/135, and authorizes the Managing Director to take such action as is necessary to conclude and implement the agreement and issue the promissory note.
This Selected Issues paper provides updates on Greece’s financial stability framework. The paper highlights that the Bank of Greece (BoG) has strengthened the financial stability framework over recent years. In addition to the liquidity provided by the euro system through its regular refinancing operations and standing facilities, the BoG can provide emergency liquidity assistance (ELA) to financial institutions. In response to the global financial crisis, the authorities have assisted bank capital and funding. A manual has been developed to monitor financial stability and spell out contingency plans for the management of crises.
This paper discusses short-range forecasting of US imports. At first sight the movement of dollar acceptances for imports into the United States might reasonably be expected to indicate what the movement of imports would be in some succeeding period. Both gross national product (GNP) and national income have been generally considered the most important determinants of US imports, and many regression relations between imports and GNP, or national income, have been calculated in the literature on this subject. An examination of quarterly data, however, reveals practically identical major turning points in GNP, in national income, and in total imports, so that neither lagged GNP nor lagged national income can be used to indicate these turnings. Variations in new orders placed with manufacturers might be expected, a priori, to be closely associated with subsequent variations in imports. Viewed in the light of these considerations, the superiority of the new orders relation over the autoregressive relation is seen to be much greater than is suggested by the correlation coefficients alone.
Ms. Susana Garcia Cervero, J. Humberto Lopez, Mr. Enrique Alberola Ila, and Mr. Angel J. Ubide
This paper presents a methodology for calculating bilateral equilibrium exchange rates for a panel of currencies in a way that guarantees global consistency. The methodology has three parts: a theoretical model that encompasses the balance of payments and the Balassa-Samuelson approaches to real exchange rate determination; an unobserved components decomposition in a cointegration framework that identifies a time-varying equilibrium real exchange rate; and an algebraic transformation that extracts bilateral equilibrium nominal rates. The results uncover that, by the start of Stage III of the European Economic and Monetary Union (EMU), the euro was significantly undervalued against the dollar and the pound, but overvalued against the yen. The paper also shows that the four major EMU currencies locked their parities with the euro at a rate close to equilibrium.
The issue of whether government capital is productive has received a great deal of recent attention. Yet empirical analyses of public capital productivity have generally been limited to the official capital stock estimates available in a small sample of countries. Alternatively, many researchers have investigated the output effects of public investment-recognizing that investment may be a poor proxy for the corresponding capital stock. This paper attempts to overcome the data shortage by providing internationally comparable capital stock estimates for 22 Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD) countries.
Mr. James McHugh, Iva Petrova, and Mr. Emanuele Baldacci
This paper proposes a set of fiscal indicators to assess rollover risks using the conceptual framework developed by Cottarelli (2011). These indicators provide early warning signals about the manifestation of these risks, giving policymakers the opportunity to adjust policies before extreme fiscal stress events. Two aggregate indices are calculated: an index of fiscal vulnerability and an index of fiscal stress. Results show that both indices are elevated for advanced economies, reflecting unfavorable medium-term debt dynamics and aging-related spending pressures. In emerging economies, solvency risks are lower, but the composition of public debt remains a source of risk and the fiscal position is weaker than before the crisis.