“We have tackled difficult problems on which sincere differences of judgment and interest are bound to arise and have reached conclusions on them in the conviction that the world is interdependent and that only concerted action by all countries can achieve lasting benefits for any.” Mr. Denis Healey, the Chairman, in this statement made in September 1978, was referring to the work of the Interim Committee in the preceding year, but, as this article shows, his words could apply to the role of the Committee during the whole of its existence so far.
Unlike most nonfinancial corporations, in a market-based economy, banks are subject to a special regime of licensing, regulation, and supervision (hereinafter also “prudential regulation”). In a market-based economy, the function of banks differs from that of other enterprises, calling for special treatment of banks by the state.
Banks require a strong legal framework providing certainty concerning their rights and obligations under the law and permitting them to enforce their financial claims expeditiously and effectively against counterparties in default. Conversely, weaknesses in the legal system that create uncertainties concerning the existence and enforceability of property rights increase the risk that, as debtors hiding behind such weaknesses default on their obligations, banks will not be able to collect on their claims. Inefficiencies in the judicial processing of financial claims by banks may inhibit the marketing of financial assets and reduce their value; this often results in unhealthy accumulations of nonperforming assets on banks’ balance sheets, weakening the banking system as a whole. Meanwhile, banks will cover these risks and market inefficiencies in the form of higher charges, creating upward pressure on transaction costs throughout the economy.
Regulatory intervention includes all action taken by the bank regulator with respect to a bank in response to continuing violations of prudential law (banking law, implementing regulations, etc.) on the part of that bank. Thereby, the bank regulator intervenes directly or indirectly in the bank’s management and operations.
This Selected Background Issues paper on Switzerland reviews a few monetary and exchange rate issues, including questions related to the monetary policy framework and the assessment of recent monetary conditions and exchange rate developments. The paper examines the Swiss savings and investment levels from a welfare point of view, employing for this purpose some “golden rule” criteria of capital accumulation put forward in the academic literature. It finds that, with its unusually high levels of saving, Switzerland may be one of the few advanced industrialized countries that strictly fulfills the “golden rule” criteria.
International Monetary Fund. Middle East and Central Asia Dept.
This paper outlines a consolidated Medium-Term Fiscal Framework (MTFF), which is comprehensive and forward looking, could set a clear direction for fiscal policy for the country as a whole and better align resource allocation with local and national developments plans underpinned by goals embodied in the Vision 2021. High quality of public financial management systems overall is also key ingredient of an appropriate MTFF. The framework could consider explicitly expenditure needs in critical areas such as education and health care. Monitoring of contingent liabilities needs to be strengthened, including covering private and public partnerships (PPPs) and government related enterprises (GREs) including their global subsidiaries. Data sharing across all levels of governments, including the central bank, could also be strengthened. The federal government and the Emirates of Abu Dhabi and Dubai have started using MTFFs to inform their fiscal policy choices, albeit to different degrees.
The UK entered 2020 negotiating a new economic relationship with the EU and facing other challenges, including meeting climate targets, dealing with an aging population, and reinvigorating tepid productivity growth. Growth and investment had been weak since the 2016 referendum, and the current account deficit elevated, but unemployment was low, inflation on target, and balance sheets strong. The global pandemic hit the UK hard in March, and the country now faces a second wave. The economic impact has been severe, but helped by an aggressive policy response, jobs have been preserved, businesses kept afloat, and banking sector losses contained. Still, the outlook for the near term is weak, as the economy works through the second wave, Brexit, rising unemployment, and corporate distress. Risks are overall to the downside, centering on the degree of balance sheet damage sustained by households and small and medium enterprises. The pace at which vaccines are able to bring the pandemic under control could be an important mitigating factor.
International Monetary Fund. Asia and Pacific Dept
This Selected Issues paper evaluates corporate and banking sector vulnerabilities in India. The analysis shows that while corporate sector risks have subsided, debt repayment capacity remains strained, and high leverage continues to weigh on corporate resilience, which may pose further risks to banks’ asset quality. Public sector banks have stepped up recognition of nonperforming assets, but their debt recovery capacity remains weak. Simulations suggest that potential recapitalization needs, at current provisioning levels, should have a modest fiscal impact.
This paper reviews developments in the flow of private capital during 1957–1965 within the limitations of the basic data. This paper is divided into five sections. The paper examines the statistics on a broad global basis to gauge the rough magnitude of flows between the industrial and nonindustrial countries, analysed between long-term and short-term capital. The published figures show a net inflow of short-term capital to the nonindustrial countries over the two four-year periods, but the large negative net errors and omissions item for these countries suggests that some capital outflows have passed unidentified. The pattern of growth in direct investment from the first to the second four-year period suggests a decrease in the flow to the nonindustrial countries as a group. Despite the change in direct investment in nonindustrial countries shown by the aggregate figures, all the areas, except Latin America, registered appreciably greater direct investment receipts in the second than in the first four-year period.