This technical note focuses on the concept of a shadow economy and explains its main characteristics. Although a shadow economy is acknowledged by all G-20 countries as a major and enduring revenue risk, by its nature the size of a shadow economy is difficult to measure. Sweden, however, estimates that at least half of its total tax gap is attributable to a shadow economy. This note explains what action should revenue agencies take to manage a shadow economy. The most recent initiatives to manage a shadow economy are also described.
This technical note focuses on the concept of autonomy and describes why it is important in public administration. There has been a tendency for governments to increase the autonomy of their departments and agencies. The basic principle is that such autonomy can lead to better performance by removing impediments to effective and efficient management while maintaining appropriate accountability and transparency. This note explains how autonomy is relevant for revenue administration and what is the range of autonomy currently practiced. The paper also describes key measures of autonomy in revenue administration.
Fabian Bornhorst, Ms. Annalisa Fedelino, Jan Gottschalk, and Miss Gabriela Dobrescu
Technical Notes and Manuals are produced by IMF departments to expand the dissemination of their technical assistance advice. These papers present general advice and guidance, drawn in part from unpublished technical assistance reports, to a broader audience. This new series was launched in August 2009.
This technical note analyzes the functionally organized tax administration. The organization structure of tax organizations has evolved considerably over time. From organization structures based on type of tax, to those based on function, to those based on the type of taxpayer, economies of different sizes and at different stages of development have attempted different kinds of organizational reform. This note explains why the choice of an organizational model is so important. The paper also describes key components of a function-based organization.
A Supply and Use Table (SUT) serve to increase the quality of GDP and related aggregates by providing a framework to detect and resolve inconsistencies in data sources. SUTs are also a powerful analytical tool that permit users to access information on detailed production functions, consumption, export, and import baskets, or to derive input-output tables. SUT compilation is data intensive and requires a balancing process. The balancing procedure is labor intensive and generally requires several long and sometimes tedious iterations, which has an adverse effect on timeliness. This note describes a basic algorithm developed by the IMF to balance supply and use tables automatically, allowing a much faster SUT balancing process. For training purposes, this algorithm has been implemented as an Excel tool SUTB, making it operational almost globally. The optimization process is illustrated with an example.
This technical note describes measuring performance in tax administration. Performance measurement is an ongoing process of ascertaining how well, or how poorly, an organization is achieving its goals and objectives. It involves the continuous collection of data on progress made in this regard. Performance indicators, or measures, are developed as standards for assessing the extent to which these objectives are achieved. This note explains key features of performance management and performance measurement. It outlines how tax administrations can apply performance management at the strategic level. Key tasks in implementing a performance management system are also described.