In an article in the last issue of Finance and Development Adolf J.H. Enthoven showed how accountancy has through its history continuously responded to new needs. In this article he indicates how he believes it should now respond to the requirements of the developing countries.
This paper examines the trade and pricing policies in world agriculture. In the United States, the government pays farmers not to grow cereals and in the European Community, farmers are paid to grow more. Many have raised nominal producer prices but followed macroeconomic and exchange rate policies that left real producer prices unchanged or lower than before. Many have set up complex systems of producer taxation, and then established equally complex and frequently ineffectual systems of subsidies for inputs to offset that taxation.
This 2009 Article IV Consultation highlights that Bhutan’s fiscal policy has been anchored by keeping current spending below domestic revenue. Bhutan’s large and volatile trade deficits have been offset by sizable foreign aid flows, resulting in a balance of payments (BOP) surplus and reserve accumulation. The BOP surplus has averaged about 8 percent of GDP over the last few years. Executive Directors have commended the authorities for the strong economic performance anchored by hydropower sector development, and supported by prudent economic management, firm donor support, and political stability.
International Monetary Fund. Western Hemisphere Dept.
This 2016 Article IV Consultation highlights Bolivia's substantial economic and social progress, boosted by the commodity boom. Growth has been strong, averaging about 5 percent since 2006, and poverty has fallen by a third. During this time, the authorities built up sizable buffers and largely dedollarized the financial system. Real GDP growth is projected at 3.7 percent in 2016, which is still relatively strong by regional standards. In the medium term, growth is expected to converge toward 3.5 percent, consistent with the new commodity price normal, amid persistent twin deficits.
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This paper describes the technical improvement in developing countries. It highlights that developing countries have relied heavily for their industrial development upon foreign enterprises as sources of technology and management systems. The paper underscores that through direct investment or under licensing arrangements, foreign corporations have supplied a vast array of industrial products and equipment and have exercised a major role in the design and construction of processing and manufacturing facilities in newly industrializing countries.
The World Bank’s approach to development theory and practice has changed considerably over the 30 years of its operations. The author, who has been involved with the Bank’s work over most of this period, examines the Bank’s lending programs and policies in relation to prevalent thinking on development economics over the years.
This paper presents a snapshot of changes in the world’s health and demographic conditions. The paper highlights that in most parts of the world, individuals are healthier and living longer, thanks to improved health services and living conditions and the more widespread use of immunization, antibiotics, and better contraceptives. Although this trend is likely to continue, hopes are fading in some regions where progress slowed or stopped in the 1990s, primarily as a result of the AIDS epidemic. Moreover, most regions of the developing world will not reach the Millennium Development Goals for health by 2015.