Mr. Tomás J. T. Baliño, Mr. Charles Enoch, and Mr. William E. Alexander
This paper examines the experience of implementing indirect instruments of monetary policy. The experiences of country studies illustrate the variety of circumstances under which indirect instruments of monetary policy have been introduced. Case Studies are presented for Chile, Egypt, Ghana, Indonesia, Mexico, New Zealand, and Poland.
The paper summarizes the main issues arising from experiences of industrial and developing countries with capital account liberalization and it examines the IMF's treatment of capital controls in its surveillance, use of IMF resources, and technical assistance activities. Case studies of recent experiences with capital controls in Chile, Colombia, Malaysia, and Venezuela are presented.
Mr. Akira Ariyoshi, Mr. Andrei A Kirilenko, Ms. Inci Ötker, Mr. Bernard J Laurens, Mr. Jorge I Canales Kriljenko, and Mr. Karl F Habermeier
This paper examines country experiences with the use and liberalization of capital controls to develop a deeper understanding of the role of capital controls in coping with volatile capital flows, as well as the issues surrounding their liberalization. Detailed analyses of country cases aim to shed light on the motivations to limit capital flows; the role the controls may have played in coping with particular situations, including in financial crises and in limiting short-term inflows; the nature and design of the controls; and their effectivenes and potential costs. The paper also examines the link between prudential policies and capital controls and illstrates the ways in which better prudential practices and accelerated financial reforms could address the risks in cross-border capital transactions.
Mr. Eliot Kalter, Mr. Steven T Phillips, Mr. Manmohan Singh, Mr. Mauricio Villafuerte, Mr. Rodolfo Luzio, and Marco A Espinosa-Vega
This paper presents the primary institutions and economic policies that have led to Chile’s remarkable record of stability and growth over the past twenty years. The core of this policy stance is the combination of fiscal discipline and an open trade policy regime, together with carefully sequenced financial liberalization with in a strengthened regulatory framework.Chile has succeeded in sustaining these policies-despite external and domestic forces to the contrary-because of carefully designed institutional arrangements that encourage policies oriented toward long-term success.
Mr. George A Mackenzie, Mr. Philip R. Gerson, and Mr. David William Harold Orsmond
This study examines the composition of fiscal adjustment - tax and expenditure policies and administrative procedures, and some aspects of public enterprise reform - in a sample of eight countries (Bangladesh, Chile, Ghana, India, Mexico, Morocco, Senegal, and Thailand) during a period of fiscal reform (usually 1978-93), to determine whether and to what extent the fiscal reforms fostered growth during the adjustment period.
Mr. Manmohan S. Kumar and Mr. Pablo Emilio Guidotti
This study discusses the evolution of domestic public debt in several indebted countries and its relationship with their external debt and underlying fiscal developments. It examines the links between domestic and external debt, taxes, subsidies, and government spending, and reviews strategies for managing domestic public debt.
Ms. Agnes A Belaisch, Mr. Charles Collyns, Ms. Paula De Masi, Mr. Guy M Meredith, Mr. Anoop Singh, Ms. Reva Krieger, and Mr. Robert Rennhack
Este estudio examina las influencias externas e internas sobre el desempeño económico de América Latina durante los últimos 15 años. Se destaca que en los últimos años se han fortalecido las políticas macroeconómicas y se han implementado reformas estructurales. Conjugadas con un entorno externo favorable, estas políticas han contribuido a una recuperación económica relativamente vigorosa en América Latina después de la última recesión por la que atravesó la región. El estudio analiza las reformas prioritarias en la región que podrían ayudar a asegurar que se consolide esta creciente prosperidad. También se presentan reflexiones sobre el papel futuro de las principales autoridades involucradas en este proceso: los gobiernos de la región; las instituciones financieras internacionales, en especial el FMI; y los gobiernos de los países industriales.
Mr. Robin Brooks, Mr. Kenneth Rogoff, Mr. Ashoka Mody, Nienke Oomes, and Mr. Aasim M. Husain
The issue of the appropriate exchange rate regime for individual countries has been perennially lively, and the role played by international capital flows and domestic financial systems in determining the performance of these regimes has gained prominence in the policy debate. Using recent advances in the classification of exchange rate regimes, the key message in this paper is that, as economies and their institutions mature, the value of exchange rate flexibility increases. This study assesses the historical durability and performance of alternative exchange rate regimes, with special focus on developing and emerging market countries. It describes trends in the distribution of regimes and examines the transitions between regimes. It also reviews the performance of exchange rate regimes in terms of inflation and business cycles.
Mr. Barry J. Eichengreen, Ms. Inci Ötker, Mr. A. J Hamann, Mr. Esteban Jadresic, Mr. R. B. Johnston, Mr. Hugh Bredenkamp, and Mr. Paul R Masson
In a world of increasing capital mobility and broadening and more diversified trade, many (but not all) developing and transition economies are likely to find it desirable to move from relatively fixed exchange rate regimes to regimes of greater exchange rate flexibility. This paper suggests why, and considers strategies that countries may consider for such a move. It reinforces this discussion with a review of experience from teh past two decades with alternative exchange rate regimes. The paper also identifies policies that can facilitate the transition to greater exchange rate flexibility for countries that wish to pursue this option.