A considerable degree of complexity is involved in organizing a portfolio investment survey to ensure good quality data. Therefore, compilers should carefully consider all possibilities before deciding on the collection system. This chapter guides compilers on this process as follows:
While the manner in which the national survey is to be conducted is left to the national compiler, the concepts and principles underlying the national survey are to be applied in conformity with the fifth edition of the International Monetary Fund’s Balance of Payments Manual. To assist compilers in meeting this task, the Task Force identified the following areas where practical guidance is required:
This paper presents a coordinated portfolio investment survey guide provided to assist national compilers in the conduct of the Coordinated Portfolio Investment Survey, conducted under the auspices of the IMF with reference to the year-end 1997. The guide covers a variety of conceptual issues that a country must address when conducting a survey. It also covers the practical issues associated with preparing for a national survey. These include setting a timetable, taking account of the legal and confidentiality issues raised, developing a mailing list, and maintaining quality control checks.
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This paper aims to contribute to the discussion by sketching ways in which the taxation equity-efficiency frontier could be shifted outward in the Netherlands. In a nutshell, we argue that significant efficiency gains could be achieved by shifting the tax burden away from labor, and toward consumption and capital—especially housing. The detrimental impact of the tax-benefit system on labor supply—in particular by mothers—and the insufficient and distortionary use of the value-added tax (VAT) as a revenue-collection mechanism is also highlighted in the paper. This paper also reviews the main features of the Dutch tax system and sketches the contours of a hypothetical tax reform.
This Selected Issues paper for Belgium evaluates whether price increases in Belgium are excessive. It assesses the household and bank balance sheets and their vulnerability to a slowdown in housing prices, and identifies differences in real estate markets between Belgium and other countries. The paper analyzes policy and institutional factors that may have contributed to housing price developments in Belgium. It identifies potential policies that are available to avert a buildup of pressures. The paper also describes the model setup and calibration of some crucial economic relations and parameters.
This Selected Issues paper investigates the possible contribution of activation strategies—in a broad sense—to improve employment rates in Finland. It summarizes recent labor market developments in Finland, and investigates respectively the limitation of current unemployment and disability benefit schemes. The paper identifies possible strategies to activate recipients, and focuses on strategies to boost youth employment rates. The paper also discusses the possibility of using in-work benefit systems to create incentives to work at the low-skilled end of the labor market.
This issue features a timely paper by Vladimir Klyuev and Paul Mills on the role of personal wealth and home equity withdrawal in the decline in the U.S. saving rate. Lusine Lusinyan and Leo Bonato explain how work absence in 18 European countries affects labor supply and demand. And a paper by Paolo Manasse (University of Bologna) entitled "Deficit Limits and Fiscal Rules for Dummies" examines fiscal frameworks.