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International Monetary Fund. Asia and Pacific Dept

The Sixth Five Year Plan, as outlined in Bangladesh's Poverty Reduction Strategy Paper, targets strategic growth and employment. The medium-term macroeconomic framework plan entails the involvement of both the private and public sectors. Human resources development strategy programs reaching out to the poor and the vulnerable population, as well as environment, climate change, and disaster risk management, have been included in the plan. Managing regional disparities for shared growth and strategy for raising farm productivity and agricultural growth have been outlined. Diversifying exports and developing a dynamic manufacturing sector are all inclusive in the proposed plan.

Ian W.H. Parry, Mr. Dirk Heine, Eliza Lis, and Shanjun Li

Abstract

Many energy prices in many countries are wrong. They are set at levels that do not reflect environmental damage, notably global warming, air pollution, and various side effects of motor vehicle use. In so doing, many countries raise too much revenue from direct taxes on work effort and capital accumulation and too little from taxes on energy use.

Ian W.H. Parry, Mr. Dirk Heine, Eliza Lis, and Shanjun Li

Abstract

Fossil fuels are used pervasively to generate electricity, power transportation vehicles, and provide heat for buildings and manufacturing processes. Fuel combustion produces carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions and various local air pollutants, and use of transportation vehicles also causes road congestion, accidents, and (less important) pavement damage.

International Monetary Fund. Research Dept.

Abstract

The authors of this chapter are Francesca Caselli, Francesco Grigoli (co-lead), Weicheng Lian, and Damiano Sandri (co-lead), with support from Jungjin Lee and Xiaohui Sun. The chapter benefited from insightful comments by Yuriy Gorodnichenko and internal seminar participants.

International Monetary Fund. Research Dept.

Abstract

The authors of this chapter are Philip Barrett, Christian Bogmans, Benjamin Carton, Johannes Eugster, Florence Jaumotte (lead), Adil Mohommad, Evgenia Pugacheva, Marina M. Tavares, and Simon Voigts, in collaboration with external consultants Warwick McKibbin and Weifeng Liu for modeling simulations, and with contributions from Thomas Brand. Srijoni Banerjee, Eric Bang, and Jaden Kim provided research support, and Daniela Rojas Fernandez provided editorial assistance.

Ian W.H. Parry, Mr. Dirk Heine, Eliza Lis, and Shanjun Li

Abstract

The first part of this chapter discusses why environmental taxes or the equivalent emissions trading systems (ETSs) should be front and center in getting energy prices right, though design details, such as targeting the right base, exploiting the fiscal dividend, and establishing stable prices aligned to environmental damage, are critical. The second part discusses a variety of further design issues, including specifics for power generation and transportation fuels, the role of other instruments, overcoming challenges to price reform, and issues for low-income countries.

Ian W.H. Parry, Mr. Dirk Heine, Eliza Lis, and Shanjun Li

Abstract

This chapter begins with a brief review of the literature on valuing climate change damage from carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions. The heart of the chapter is about measuring damage from the most important harm from local air pollution: human mortality risk.

Ian W.H. Parry, Mr. Dirk Heine, Eliza Lis, and Shanjun Li

Abstract

This chapter consists of three sections focused on the three major, non-pollution-related externalities from motor vehicles: traffic congestion, traffic accidents, and (to a much lesser extent) wear and tear on the road network (relevant for trucks). Other data and assumptions needed to implement the corrective motor fuel tax formulas from Chapter 3 are discussed in the annexes to this chapter.

Ian W.H. Parry, Mr. Dirk Heine, Eliza Lis, and Shanjun Li

Abstract

This chapter summarizes the corrective tax estimates for coal, natural gas, and motor fuels based on the assumptions discussed in previous chapters, both for selected countries and, using ranges of values in heat maps, for all countries, and then discusses the fiscal, health, and environmental impacts of tax reform. Various tables in Annex 6.2 provide full details of this information, country by country, including estimates of current fuel taxes or subsidies.