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Mr. G. Russell Kincaid, K. Burke Dillon, Mr. Maxwell Watson, and Ms. Chanpen Puckahtikom

Abstract

The number of debt restructurings has increased sharply since the emergence of widespread payments difficulties in 1982. In that year, only 7 bank and 6 official restructuring agreements or temporary deferments were negotiated; in 1984, there were 21 and 13 respectively. Moreover, a substantial portion of the recent new private lending being made to developing countries has been coordinated under restructuring arrangements.

Mr. G. Russell Kincaid, K. Burke Dillon, Mr. Maxwell Watson, and Ms. Chanpen Puckahtikom

Abstract

No formal framework existed for conducting commercial bank debt negotiations when the serious problems of major debtor countries became evident during the course of 1982. Earlier bank debt restructurings were sporadic, involved relatively small amounts, and posed less serious difficulties for bank management and for the international financial system. The problems emerging in 1982 required procedures to restructure large volumes of debt due to hundreds of creditor banks, and to help resolve issues of burden sharing among private and official creditors. Moreover, both creditor banks and authorities in debtor countries needed a framework to facilitate the maintenance of short-term bank exposure during and after debt restructuring and to reach agreement where appropriate on commitments of new money.

Mr. G. Russell Kincaid, K. Burke Dillon, Mr. Maxwell Watson, and Ms. Chanpen Puckahtikom

Abstract

This section describes the principal features of official multilateral debt restructurings that took place during 1983–84, particularly in comparison with agreements reached during the preceding eight-year period from 1975. It documents the sharp increase in the number of reschedulings and focuses on notable recent developments, especially the trend toward an easing in the repayment terms for some countries that have had successive reschedulings. It also addresses issues relating to multiyear debt restructurings by official creditors with reference to the recent MYRA for Ecuador.

Mr. Mohamed A. El-Erian and Mr. Charles Collyns
A number of developing countries, including some of the largest debtors, have recently completed comprehensive debt and debt service restructuring packages with their commercial bank creditors. The experience of these countries provides important lessons for other countries that are just embarking on discussions to normalize their external payments situation. Following a brief description of the framework of the international debt strategy, this paper discusses the main lessons, distinguishing between those that are relevant to the process of negotiation and those relevant to the structure of the package being negotiated. This is a Paper on Policy Analysis and Assessment and the authors) would welcome any comments on the present text. Citations should refer to a Paper on Policy Analysis and Assessment of the International Monetary Fund, mentioning the authors) and the date of issuance. The views expressed are those of the author(s) and do not necessarily represent those of the Fund.
International Monetary Fund
This 2007 Article IV Consultation highlights that macroeconomic outcomes for Antigua and Barbuda have strengthened significantly in recent years. Real GDP growth averaged 5 percent during 2003–05, and is estimated to have reached 12 percent in 2006. There has been progress in implementing broad structural reforms. On fiscal issues, the authorities intend to enhance revenue performance, including the introduction of a more flexible mechanism for retail fuel pricing in 2008. They also intend to improve the investment climate, reduce skill mismatches, exports, and deregulate telecommunications.
International Monetary Fund
Following a two-year long recession, a gradual recovery of St. Kitts and Nevis’ highly indebted economy is under way. The government has shown remarkable resolve in pursuing fiscal consolidation. Notwithstanding the fiscal adjustment, a comprehensive and timely public debt restructuring is critical for the program to be fully financed and to achieve debt sustainability. Available financial sector indicators point to a well-capitalized banking system. Regulation of the non-bank financial sector has been strengthened, but continued efforts are needed to ensure effective supervision.
International Monetary Fund
This paper discusses Haiti’s progress under the Enhanced Initiative for Heavily Indebted Poor Countries. Substantial advances have been made toward meeting the four triggers not fully implemented, and the authorities are committed to further progress in the near future. These triggers relate to publication of audited government accounts, implementation of a new procurement law, education funding, teacher training and school inspections, and increasing immunization rates. Haiti’s parliament passed a new procurement law in June 2009, which is in line with international best practices.
International Monetary Fund
This report focuses on Colombia’s economic policy framework and the policy response to the global crisis. In recent years, Colombia’s policies strengthened a strong macroeconomic performance, which helped in achieving higher tax revenues and restraint on current spending. Colombia was not affected too severely by the global crisis. The impact of the crisis was mitigated by the authorities through countercyclical monetary and fiscal policies. The monetary stance is expected to remain supportive unless there are signs of domestic demand pressures guided by the inflation targeting framework.
Mr. Aasim M. Husain
This paper shows that concerted debt reduction may be welfare-improving even when the investment disincentive effect of a debt overhang is not large enough to place the debtor country on the wrong side of the debt Laffer curve. Whether the appropriate relief scheme involves debt reduction or new money, however, depends on whether investment disincentives or liquidity constraints dominate. It is shown that, except under very special circumstances, mixed policy packages involving both debt and liquidity relief may not yield the desired results.
Mr. G. Russell Kincaid, K. Burke Dillon, Mr. Maxwell Watson, and Ms. Chanpen Puckahtikom

Abstract

As a key element in effective debt relief operations, official creditors attach importance to the principle of comparable treatment for all creditors and for all types of debt, apart from obligations owed to multilateral institutions. Concern with comparable treatment arises not only from the desire to achieve an equitable sharing of the burden of debt relief among creditors, but also from the need to ensure an appropriate balance between financial support from all creditors and the adjustment efforts of the debtor countries themselves. This question has received increased emphasis in recent years as a number of countries have sought debt relief and other exceptional financing in substantial amounts or for prolonged periods and both official and private creditors have recognized the need to ensure that their efforts are integrated into an overall financing plan for the debtor.