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Ms. Hiroko Oura and Miss Liliana B Schumacher

This paper highlights that one of the most dramatic developments in the 20th century was the entry of women into economic and political spheres previously occupied almost exclusively by men. Although women are making progress in eliminating gender disparities, they still lag men in the workplace and in the halls of government. These gaps are found throughout the world, but are particularly pronounced in developing economies. So far, the greatest success has been in reducing education and health disparities and the least in increasing women’s economic and political influence.


“How much capital should shareholders be required to invest 11 in their bank?” is a question that has been asked for a half century or more. This concern for the adequacy of bank capital is part of the broader regulation of banks to assure their solvency. The length of time that capital adequacy has been debated suggests the extreme difficulty, really the impossibility, of objectively deciding what is an adequate amount of capital, or what is the appropriate ratio of capital to assets, liabilities, deposits, or risk assets—whichever denominator is eventually chosen. Nevertheless, this does not diminish the importance of capital adequacy as an operational norm for assuring bank solvency.

International Monetary Fund

This paper presents a Financial System Stability Assessment Update, including Reports on the Observance of Standards and Codes (ROSC) on the Securities Regulation, Insolvency and Creditor Rights Systems, and Payment Systems in Colombia. Overall, the financial sector appears relatively stable and resilient to potential adverse shocks. The Superintendency of Banks lacks sufficient autonomy and independence while the current legal framework fails to effectively protect either bank supervisors or the Superintendent. Risk-based regulation and consolidated supervision remain key issues for the future.

International Monetary Fund

These Technical Notes on France explain integration of global financial markets. The stress tests for the France Financial Sector Assessment Program (FSAP) were designed to yield as comprehensive and detailed a picture as possible within the constraints of the approach. Retail activity by foreign banks in France is small, but significant. The financial landscape in France remains characterized by a large number of idiosyncrasies that affect monetary transmission. Macroeconometric models point to a smaller reaction to monetary policy in France than in other large euro-area economies.

International Monetary Fund. European Dept.

In recent years, the IMF has released a growing number of reports and other documents covering economic and financial developments and trends in member countries. Each report, prepared by a staff team after discussions with government officials, is published at the option of the member country.

International Monetary Fund

The responsible conduct of macroeconomic policies has continued with the new government. These policies have been key to stabilizing the economic situation and improving growth prospects. Maintaining budgetary control to stimulate the economy and step up social and infrastructure spending is the immediate challenge. The achievement of broad price stability attests to the adept handling of monetary policy. Structural reform implementation remains the major concern. Sustaining the recovery will require the deepening and broadening of structural reforms and the normalization of Argentina's relations with external creditors.