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Roger A. Hornstein

The Bank (including the International Development Association) has become increasingly involved in cofinancing‑a process by which Bank money is associated with funds from external sources in financing projects in developing countries. This article analyzes what cofinancing means from the point of view of the Bank’s work, as well as of its member countries.

Miss Rita Mesias

Abstract

This Coordinated Direct Investment Survey Guide (Guide) has been prepared to assist economies in participating in the Coordinated Direct Investment Survey (CDIS). The CDIS is being conducted under the auspices of the Statistics Department of the IMF across a wide range of economies. The survey is conducted simultaneously by all participating economies; uses consistent definitions; and encourages best practices in collecting, compiling, and disseminating data on direct investment positions. The CDIS is thus an important tool in capturing world totals and the geographic distribution of direct investment positions, thereby contributing to important new understandings of the extent of globalization, and improving the overall quality of direct investment data worldwide. As of the writing of this updated Guide, more than 100 economies participate in the CDIS.

International Monetary Fund. External Relations Dept.
This paper discusses ways in which countries can invest most profitably in an industry that is capable of providing massive help to their economies. The paper highlights that tourism, like other economic activities, flourishes best when it fits into a context of general economic policies and programs designed to lead to the optimum growth of the economy as a whole. For this, some sort of national planning—at least in setting priorities and seeing that they are emphasized—is required to create a climate for productive investment in all suitable fields.
Jahangir Amuzegar

Abstract

Not unpredictably, there is a complex energy bind as we approach the end of the twentieth century. The oil importing industrial countries have anchored their industries, their means of transportation, their home comfort—in short, their whole energy-dependent lifestyle—largely to hydrocarbon fuels. For most of these countries, as well as the majority of the oil importing developing countries, domestic oil (and gas) needs must be supplied partly or largely from abroad. The major international hydrocarbon suppliers, in turn, are limited to a relatively small group of oil exporting developing countries, most of whom are members of the Organization of Petroleum Exporting Countries (OPEC).

Jahangir Amuzegar

Abstract

For the first time in postwar history, if not indeed the history of the modern world, energy management has become an overriding global economic, strategic, and political issue. Worldwide inflation, continued slow growth of industrial economies, high and widespread unemployment, and the discouraging prospects for the poorer non-oil developing countries are often linked to the so-called energy crisis. The emergence of this phenomenon is of crucial significance not only in the internal development strategies of the major oil exporting and large oil importing countries but also in the ongoing North/South relations, the old East/West competition, and the new North/North and South/South cooperation.

Jahangir Amuzegar

Abstract

Critical choices of development strategy facing the oil exporting developing countries revolve around the prospects for and limitations of their underlying economic structure as major oil exporters. On the positive side, these countries possess some fortuitous features not shared by other developing countries. Among these is a steady and effective demand for oil paid in foreign exchange, creating a sizable and virtually painless source of national savings that is capable of underwriting domestic development as well as foreign investment and assistance. On the negative side, these countries are plagued by certain growth-impeding factors such as insufficient infrastructure facilities, insufficient skilled labor, the lack of a commensurately developed bureaucracy, and a virtual absence of capital-based indigenous technology.

International Monetary Fund
Depuis plusieurs années, le FMI publie un nombre croissant de rapports et autres documents couvrant l'évolution et les tendances économiques et financières dans les pays membres. Chaque rapport, rédigé par une équipe des services du FMI à la suite d'entretiens avec des représentants des autorités, est publié avec l'accord du pays concerné.
International Monetary Fund. Middle East and Central Asia Dept.
This 2017 Article IV Consultation highlights that Tunisia’s economic growth almost doubled to 1.9 percent in 2017, as confidence strengthened on the back of improved security and the unity government’s early progress with policy and reform implementation. Investment and exports remained sluggish, however. Growth is expected to reach 2.4 percent in 2018, helped by a good agricultural season and a pickup in manufacturing and tourism. The unemployment rate remains high at 15 percent. Trade data for early 2018 show an improvement in export performance, while import growth is slowing. This favorable trend is expected to continue throughout the remainder of the year, supported by a more favorable real exchange rate.