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International Monetary Fund

This paper presents a Financial System Stability Assessment Update, including Reports on the Observance of Standards and Codes (ROSC) on the Securities Regulation, Insolvency and Creditor Rights Systems, and Payment Systems in Colombia. Overall, the financial sector appears relatively stable and resilient to potential adverse shocks. The Superintendency of Banks lacks sufficient autonomy and independence while the current legal framework fails to effectively protect either bank supervisors or the Superintendent. Risk-based regulation and consolidated supervision remain key issues for the future.

Mr. T. M. C. Asser

Abstract

Unlike most nonfinancial corporations, in a market-based economy, banks are subject to a special regime of licensing, regulation, and supervision (hereinafter also “prudential regulation”). In a market-based economy, the function of banks differs from that of other enterprises, calling for special treatment of banks by the state.

Mr. T. M. C. Asser

Abstract

Banks require a strong legal framework providing certainty concerning their rights and obligations under the law and permitting them to enforce their financial claims expeditiously and effectively against counterparties in default. Conversely, weaknesses in the legal system that create uncertainties concerning the existence and enforceability of property rights increase the risk that, as debtors hiding behind such weaknesses default on their obligations, banks will not be able to collect on their claims. Inefficiencies in the judicial processing of financial claims by banks may inhibit the marketing of financial assets and reduce their value; this often results in unhealthy accumulations of nonperforming assets on banks’ balance sheets, weakening the banking system as a whole. Meanwhile, banks will cover these risks and market inefficiencies in the form of higher charges, creating upward pressure on transaction costs throughout the economy.

Mr. T. M. C. Asser

Abstract

Regulatory intervention includes all action taken by the bank regulator with respect to a bank in response to continuing violations of prudential law (banking law, implementing regulations, etc.) on the part of that bank. Thereby, the bank regulator intervenes directly or indirectly in the bank’s management and operations.

International Monetary Fund. Monetary and Capital Markets Department

Financial System Stability Assessment-Press Release and Statement by the Executive Director for India

International Monetary Fund
This paper examines the Insurance Regulation and Supervision for Cyprus’s Financial Sector Assessment Program. The domestic nonlife market is dominated by motor insurance which accounted for 58 percent of net premiums. All Cypriot business is reinsured with nondomiciled reinsurers. Health insurance is regulated as nonlife business when written as add-ons to accident and sickness or as life business when written with life policies. A number of professional bodies and self-regulatory industry associations complement the regulatory regime for the insurance industry.
International Monetary Fund. Monetary and Capital Markets Department
This Technical Note provides an update on the Austrian insurance industry and an analysis of its regulatory and supervisory regime. The structure of the domestic insurance sector has remained largely stable since the last update. At Q3-2012 there were 50 insurance companies with assets of €108 billion, making up nearly 40 percent of GDP. Although insurance portfolios are largely concentrated in high-quality bonds, they have significant exposure to European banks. Most insurance companies in Austria appear well capitalized under the Solvency I regime. The industry remains profitable though margins have come under some pressure recently.
International Monetary Fund. Monetary and Capital Markets Department
This report is a full assessment of Brazil’s compliance with the Insurance Core Principles (ICPs) of the International Association of Insurance Supervisors (IAIS) as adopted in October 2011. In the last few years, the Brazilian insurance industry experienced an explosive growth doubling the premium between 2005 and 2010. Investments by the insurance sector are conservative and short term, and primarily comprised of fixed income instruments. Profitability levels of the insurance sector have been consistent and the solvency ratio of the insurance industry has been strong. Other financial indicators of the insurance sector also suggest resilience.
International Monetary Fund
Insurance regulation and supervision is of a high standard, and most of the enhancements suggested have been put in place. Further enhancements will be required, in the context of the forthcoming introduction of Solvency II requirements, in such areas as the frequency of onsite inspections, the enhancement of resources, and stability analysis. The government acknowledges the need to continue to develop supervisory capacity. Most of the requirements and supervisory tools, which are in use for the supervision of primary insurers, are also applied to the reinsurers.