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  • General Financial Markets: General (includes Measurement and Data) x
  • Macroeconomic Aspects of International Trade and Finance: General x
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Mr. Jian-Ye Wang, Mr. Yo Kikuchi, Mr. Sidhartha Choudhury, and Mr. Mario Mansilla

Abstract

Official export credit agencies (ECAs), a key pillar of the international financial architecture in the second half of the twentieth century, financed a significant share of exports from industrialized countries and provided larger debt financing for developing countries than either multilateral or bilateral creditors. Since the early 1990s, however, the world has changed dramatically. As noted in a conference in 2000 on the role of the U.S. Export-Import Bank in the twenty-first century, private credit insurance companies have “increasingly occupied the market” while “government-insured export business tends to account for a shrinking share of total exports in the major exporting countries.”1 Indeed, globalization, fueled by privatization and trade and capital liberalization, has significantly altered the landscape of international trade finance in recent years.2 Yet there are more ECAs than ever before, as developing countries launch agencies of their own.

Mr. Jian-Ye Wang, Mr. Yo Kikuchi, Mr. Sidhartha Choudhury, and Mr. Mario Mansilla

Abstract

Official export credit agencies were established originally to promote national exports in situations where the private sector was reluctant to do so due to high political and commercial risks. Because their support for exporters also gives importers access to finance (through buyer or supplier credit), and because most agencies also provide insurance for outward direct investment, these institutions have played a significant role in financing for developing countries. However, official export credit agencies are not a homogenous group. Their key mandates and the institutional arrangements for providing official export credit support are summarized in Boxes 2.1 and 2.2. The first box also presents background information on the trade finance market, including key trade finance providers besides official export credit agencies.

Mr. Jian-Ye Wang, Mr. Yo Kikuchi, Mr. Sidhartha Choudhury, and Mr. Mario Mansilla

Abstract

The decisions of the OECD governments to further reduce subsidies and to downsize government-supported businesses in the early 1990s were key factors in setting in motion the retreat of official agencies as suppliers of short-term export credits in industrial countries. Both national and international policies have also had a direct impact on the level, destination, and sectoral allocation of officially supported export credits. The subsequent rise of the private sector represents a fundamental force reshaping the landscape of international trade finance, with long-term implications for official agencies.

Mr. Jian-Ye Wang, Mr. Yo Kikuchi, Mr. Sidhartha Choudhury, and Mr. Mario Mansilla

Abstract

The evidence and analysis in the preceding chapters indicate that, while the promotion of national exports remains the principal role of official export credit agencies, the focus of these agencies has been changing, with notable differences between industrial and developing countries. Official ECAs in industrial countries continue to fill in the trade finance gaps in markets where private sector financing is unavailable or insufficient; but in recent years, a significant share of ECA support has gone to keep national exporters competitive in global markets by countering foreign government support provided to competitors. This is particularly the case in sectors with economies of scale and noncompetitive market structure, such as aircraft and military equipment.

Mr. Jian-Ye Wang, Mr. Yo Kikuchi, Mr. Sidhartha Choudhury, and Mr. Mario Mansilla

Abstract

Over the past decade, the private sector has grown to become capable of providing trade financing adequately and competitively in certain markets previously dominated by official export credit agencies. Official ECAs also have to deal with two other sources of competition originating from economic development in recipient countries: the expansion of domestic banking capacity, and improved access of borrowing countries to other sources of international financing as their income level and creditworthiness rise. The current top markets of ECAs may eventually become self-sufficient in meeting the financing needs for their capital goods imports and even in large project financing. (For instance, such was the case in Spain in the 1960s, Korea in the 1980s, and Mexico and possibly China more recently.) If these factors continue to develop, official ECAs’ share in world trade may decline further. Especially in OECD countries, official ECAs are facing the challenge of private sector competition and an associated adverse selection problem—how to break even while covering the riskiest segments of the market.

International Monetary Fund. External Relations Dept.
'Crisis Stalls Globalization: Reshaping the World Economy' examines the multiple facets of the recession--from the impact on individual economies to the effect on the external accounts of the world’s lenders and borrowers--and offers a variety of suggestions for supporting a recovery and averting future crises. Several IMF studies shed light on the depth of the crisis--including a survey of the sharp drop in trade finance, along with quantitative findings about the direct and indirect costs of the financial turbulence--and debate what is to be done from several angles, including the redesign of the regulatory framework and ways to plug large data gaps to prevent future crises and aid in the creation of early warning systems. Opinion pieces discuss the shifting boundaries between the state and markets, the agenda for financial sector reform, and the governance of global financial markets. The issue also includes a historical perspective to see when restructuring the global financial architecture actually succeeds. 'People in Economics' profiles Nouriel Roubini; 'Back to Basics' looks at what makes a recession; and 'Data Spotlight' examines Latin America's debt.
International Monetary Fund. External Relations Dept.
'Crisis Stalls Globalization: Reshaping the World Economy' examines the multiple facets of the recession--from the impact on individual economies to the effect on the external accounts of the world’s lenders and borrowers--and offers a variety of suggestions for supporting a recovery and averting future crises. Several IMF studies shed light on the depth of the crisis--including a survey of the sharp drop in trade finance, along with quantitative findings about the direct and indirect costs of the financial turbulence--and debate what is to be done from several angles, including the redesign of the regulatory framework and ways to plug large data gaps to prevent future crises and aid in the creation of early warning systems. Opinion pieces discuss the shifting boundaries between the state and markets, the agenda for financial sector reform, and the governance of global financial markets. The issue also includes a historical perspective to see when restructuring the global financial architecture actually succeeds. 'People in Economics' profiles Nouriel Roubini; 'Back to Basics' looks at what makes a recession; and 'Data Spotlight' examines Latin America's debt.
International Monetary Fund. External Relations Dept.
Crisis Stalls Globalization: Reshaping the World Economy" examines the multiple facets of the recession-from the impact on individual economies to the effect on the global payments imbalances that were partially at the root of the crisis-and offers a variety of suggestions for supporting a recovery and averting future crises. Several IMF studies shed light on the depth of the crisis-including a survey of the sharp drop in trade finance, along with quantitative findings about the direct and indirect costs of the financial turbulence-and debate what is to be done from several angles, including the redesign of the regulatory framework and ways to plug large data gaps to prevent future crises and aid in the creation of early warning systems. Opinion pieces discuss the shifting boundaries between the state and markets, the agenda for financial sector reform, and the governance of global financial markets. The issue also includes a historical perspective to see when restructuring the global financial architecture actually succeeds. "People in Economics" profiles Nouriel Roubini; "Back to Basics" looks at what makes a recession; and "Data Spotlight" examines Latin America's debt.
International Monetary Fund. External Relations Dept.
“La crisis frena la globalización: La economía mundial se transforma” examina las múltiples facetas de la recesión, desde su repercusión en las distintas economías hasta su efecto en las cuentas externas de los prestamistas y prestatarios mundiales, y ofrece una variedad de propuestas para apuntalar la recuperación y prevenir crisis en el futuro. Varios estudios del FMI arrojan luz sobre la magnitud de la crisis; entre ellos, un análisis del marcado descenso del financiamiento del comercio internacional y conclusiones cuantitativas sobre los costos directos e indirectos de la turbulencia financiera. Se debaten también soluciones desde diversas perspectivas, como la reformulación del marco regulatorio y la eliminación de importantes lagunas en los datos para prevenir crisis y contribuir a la creación de sistemas de alerta anticipada. Los artículos de opinión analizan la evolución de los límites cambiantes entre el Estado y los mercados, el programa de reforma del sector financiero y la gestión de los mercados financieros internacionales. A partir de una perspectiva histórica, en este número se examinan las ocasiones en que la reestructuración de la arquitectura financiera mundial da resultado. En “Gente del mundo de la economía” se traza una semblanza de Nouriel Roubini; “Vuelta a lo esencial” analiza qué constituye una recesión; y “Un vistazo a las cifras” examina la deuda de América Latina.
International Monetary Fund. External Relations Dept.
Au programme de ce numéro, intitulé « La mondialisation bute sur la crise : l'économie mondiale en mutation » : les multiples visages de la récession, de son impact sur les différents pays à son effet sur les comptes extérieurs des créanciers et emprunteurs du monde entier, et plusieurs propositions pour faciliter la reprise et prévenir les crises futures. Plusieurs études du FMI mettent en lumière la gravité de la crise — dont une enquête sur la forte chute du crédit au commerce extérieur, accompagnée de conclusions quantitatives sur les coûts directs et indirects des turbulences financières — et débattent des mesures à prendre selon plusieurs angles, notamment le remodelage du cadre réglementaire et les moyens de combler les importantes lacunes statistiques afin de prévenir les crises futures et de contribuer à la création de systèmes d'alerte précoce. Les articles publiés dans la rubrique « Points de vue » portent sur les rôles changeants de l'État et du marché, les réformes envisagées dans le secteur financier et la gouvernance des marchés financiers internationaux. Ce numéro présente également une perspective historique qui nous montre les clés de la réussite de la restructuration de l'architecture financière mondiale. Dans les autres rubriques, « Paroles d'économistes » présente Nouriel Roubini, « L’ABC de l’économie » explique les caractéristiques d'une récession, et « Gros plan » est consacré à la dette de l'Amérique latine.