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International Monetary Fund

Abstract

This paper describes that in developing countries, the moves toward more flexible exchange rate arrangements and liberalization of exchange controls often occurred in the context of comprehensive macroeconomic adjustment programs supported by the IMF. These programs featured a broad range of policy actions, including an increasing emphasis on structural reforms aimed at improving resource allocation and enhancing the supply response of the economy. With respect to restrictive systems, the trend toward liberalization of nontrade current and capital transactions continues, primarily because it is seen as ineffective, even counterproductive, to try to control such financial flows. This trend contrasts with trade where it appears that some major participants have been awaiting the outcome of the Uruguay Round before further reducing restrictions. A single currency peg has been the exchange arrangement most frequently used by developing countries, of which over one third currently have such an arrangement. This type of peg has the merit of being easy to administer and is generally chosen by countries that have a large share of foreign exchange transactions in the currency chosen as the peg.

International Monetary Fund. External Relations Dept.

04/235: IMF Managing Director Rodrigo de Rato’s Statement at the Conclusion of His Visit to Mexico, November 9

Mr. Peter S. Heller and Mr. Alan A. Tait

Abstract

Many studies on international tax comparisons have been undertaken since the early 1970s.2 While controversial, such studies have facilitated more subtle comparisons of a country’s tax performance than would be afforded by focusing on its simple tax ratio. This paper provides a comparable framework for comparisons of both functional and economic expenditure patterns of countries having similar economic and demographic positions. It also provides an implicit technological norm for predicting the economic characteristics of a country’s expenditure pattern, based on its choice of priorities for functional expenditures.

Mr. Peter S. Heller and Mr. Alan A. Tait

Abstract

One can make hypotheses about the identity of the factors that are likely to influence spending in a given functional sector, and the significance of such factors can be empirically tested. Six groups of factors can be identified: (1) demographic influences, (2) sociological concerns, (3) the structure of the economy, (4) the level of economic development, (5) technological factors, and (6) environmental factors.

Mr. Peter S. Heller and Mr. Alan A. Tait

Abstract

This section discusses the specification of the equations to predict the shares in GDP of each category of functional expenditure. The econometric results appear in Table 3. Table 1 shows the value of the IEC index. Table 4 ranks the countries by the value of their IEC index; a low ranking indicates a relatively low IEC index—namely, a low expenditure share relative to what would have been predicted for the country.

International Monetary Fund
This Selected Issues and Statistical Appendix paper examines recent economic developments and medium-term outlook for Liberia. This paper focuses on economic developments during 2003 and 2004 and the medium-term challenges of reconstruction. The paper explores the pros and cons of adopting full (de jure) dollarization in Liberia. It reviews the theoretical arguments for and against adopting dollarization and the associated empirical evidence. The choices of monetary and exchange rate regimes made by other post-conflict countries are presented. The paper also assesses whether Liberia, in its current post-conflict situation, could benefit from dollarization.
International Monetary Fund. External Relations Dept.
Annual Meetings, IMFC Communiqué, Global Financial Stability Report, Sovereign Wealth Fund Principles, Global Financial Crisis, Fair Value Accounting, Financial Stress and Downturns, Subprime Crisis, What Next for Fannie Mae, Freddie Mac?, Exchange Rate Analysis, IMF Technical Assistance Centers, TA Trust Funds, African Economic Outlook, Exogenous Shocks Facility, News Briefs.
International Monetary Fund. External Relations Dept.
Assemblée annuelle, Communiqué du CMFI, Principes pour fonds souverains, Crise financière mondiale, Comptabilité à la juste valeur, Tensions financières et ralentissements, Crise des subprimes, Où en sont Fannie et Freddie?, Analyse des taux de change, Centres régionaux d'assistance technique, Assistance technique : fonds fiduciaires, Perspectives économiques africaines, Protection contre les chocs exogènes, L'actualité en bref.
International Monetary Fund. External Relations Dept.
Reuniones Anuales, Comunicado del CMFI, Fondos soberanos de inversión, Crisis financiera mundial, Metodologías contables, Impacto del estrés financiero, Crisis hipotecaria, El futuro de Fannie y Freddie, Análisis de tipos de cambio, Centros de asistencia técnica, Fondos fiduciarios de asistencia, Perspectivas económicas de África, Servicio para Shocks Exógenos, Notas breves
Ms. Helene Poirson Ward, Mr. Luca A Ricci, and Ms. Catherine A Pattillo
This paper investigates the channels through which debt affects growth, specifically whether debt affects growth through factor accumulation or total factor productivity growth. It also tests for the presence of nonlinearities in the effects of debt on the different sources of growth. We use a large panel dataset of 61 developing countries over the period 1969-98. Results indicate that the negative impact of high debt on growth operates both through a strong negative effect on physical capital accumulation and on total factor productivity growth. On average, for high-debt countries, doubling debt will reduce output growth by about 1 percentage point and reduce both per capita physical capital and total factor productivity growth by somewhat less than that. In terms of the contributions to growth, approximately one-third of the effect of debt on growth occurs via physical capital accumulation and two-thirds via total factor productivity growth. The results are generally robust to the use of alternative estimators to control (to different extents) for biases associated with unobserved country-specific effects and the endogeneity of several regressors, particularly the debt variables. In particular, the results are shown to be compatible with a simultaneous significant effect of growth on debt ratios, as suggested by Easterly (2001).