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International Monetary Fund

This Selected Issues paper and Statistical Appendix presents estimates of potential output and the output gap for Austria to identify the scope for sustainable noninflation growth and allow an assessment of the current stance of macroeconomic policies. The estimates of the cyclical fluctuations in Austria are compared with those of the other countries of the European Union to provide the basis for an assessment of the relative economic benefits and constraints for Austria in the context of its participation in European Monetary Union, both in the short and longer term.

International Monetary Fund. European Dept.

This paper examines the selected issues related to the economy of Denmark: divergence in house prices, house prices in Denmark's cities, macroprudential policies, and product market reform and firm productivity. Recent house price developments in Denmark have been characterized by a growing divergence between different parts of the country, with big cities experiencing much more rapid price increases than other parts. House price booms and busts in Denmark, like in many other countries, are a big-city phenomenon. Macroprudential policies can help contain risks for households, the financial system, and the broader economy, but they should be carefully calibrated to avoid an undue drag on growth.

International Monetary Fund
U.S. shocks explain a large part of French output common components. This paper analyzes the economic implications of two alternative welfare financing reforms: a reduction in payroll taxes funded by an increase in consumption taxes, and the other funded by a new levy on business value added. The importance of financial market constraints and whether the recent mortgage market reform is likely to ease these constraints is assessed. Rechargeable mortgages are attractive and encourage collateralization, but bolder measures are needed to limit legal and other fees.
International Monetary Fund. External Relations Dept.
Murilo Portugal, Agustin Carstens, Kyrgyz Republic, HIPC, central Asia, Indonesian debt, Saudi Arabian economy, Peter Kenen, European Central Bank, ECB, Danish economy, flexicurity,Burundi's economy, aid volatility, Indian and China, Doing Business.