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International Monetary Fund

This study relates Australian household saving more closely to movements in asset market using event study analysis and econometric analysis. In this study, the policy challenges for Australia from rebalancing in China, a temporary growth slowdown in China, and a recession in advanced countries are analyzed. The Globally Integrated Monetary and Fiscal Model (GIMF) is used for policy challenges. The impact of the mining boom on the Australian labor market is also discussed in this paper.

International Monetary Fund

This Selected Issues paper for Austria looks at the fiscal burden facing Austria owing to aging, and the policy steps necessary to address it. It gives a short description of the Austrian pension, health care, and long-term care systems, and describes how aging will affect the costs of these systems. It then analyzes the development of age-related spending and the sustainability of general government finances under different scenarios, and quantifies the primary adjustment required to keep public finances on a sustainable path in the long term.

Edward Jaycox

In September 1975, Mr. McNamara outlined in his address to the Governors of the Bank at their Annual Meeting a major new undertaking for the Bank—a program to help national governments alleviate poverty in the rapidly growing cities of the developing countries. This article, the second in the series, sets out the background to this major effort, outlines the basic strategy that has been developed, and reports on progress to date.

International Monetary Fund. External Relations Dept.

This paper reviews the World Bank lending for structural adjustment. The World Bank has always stressed the need to use limited investable resources efficiently. It has attempted to identify investment priorities in recipient countries and lent for projects that promised a high rate of return. The Bank’s Operational Manual defines structural adjustment lending as nonproject lending to support programs of policy and institutional change necessary to modify the structure of an economy so that it can maintain both its growth rate and the viability of its balance of payments in the medium term.

International Monetary Fund

This paper discusses Bulgaria’s prospects for converging to the living standards of the more advanced members of the European Union (EU). The unfavorable economic environment of the early 1990s and the economic crisis in 1996–97 hurt Bulgaria’s output, employment, and investment. Following the crisis, structural reforms and a sound macroeconomic framework set the stage for a sustained recovery. The structure of the Bulgaria economy has shifted markedly over the last decade, and investment has become the main engine of growth.

International Monetary Fund

This paper examines economic developments and policies in Canada during 1990–95. Spurred by the robust growth in the United States and the easing of monetary conditions between 1991 and 1993, economic growth in Canada continued to strengthen during 1994. Real GDP grew by 4.5 percent in 1994 after growing by 2.2 percent in 1993 and 0.6 percent in 1992. Economic growth in 1994 was led by exports and investment in machinery and equipment. However, growth was more broadly based in 1994; private consumption strengthened, and there was a rebound in residential and nonresidential construction.