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International Monetary Fund

This Selected Economic Issues paper for Bosnia and Herzegovina reports that output, exports, and incomes have increased and inflation has stabilized. New modern banking laws have been passed in both entities, and the banking sector has been almost completely privatized, with the majority of assets now under foreign ownership. The reforms to the central bank and to the banking system have been aimed to secure stability and to build an efficient financial system.

Ernesto Crivelli, Ruud A. de Mooij, J. E. J. De Vrijer, Mr. Shafik Hebous, and Mr. Alexander D Klemm
This paper aims to contribute to the European policy debate on corporate income tax reform in three ways. First, it takes a step back to review the performance of the CIT in Europe over the past several decades and the important role played by MNEs in European economies. Second, it analyses corporate tax spillovers in Europe with a focus on the channels and magnitudes of both profit shifting and CIT competition. Third, the paper examines the progress made in European CIT coordination and discusses reforms to strengthen the harmonization of corporate tax policies, in order to effectively reduce both tax competition and profit shifting.
Mr. Parthasarathi Shome
Small taxpayers should pay their appropriate revenue share while their compliance costs should be reduced. This assumes importance as restructuring in emerging markets has meant rapid growth in services through self-employed small entrepreneurs, who have good revenue potential. Administrative facilitators such as a single tax covering income tax, VAT, and social security tax, at a reduced rate, do not lower tax evasion. They increase vertical and horizontal inequity, and lead to adverse resource allocation. A strategy is needed, extending modernization achieved in large taxpayer units (LTUs) to small taxpayers, including rationalization of collection and reporting of revenue data for policy formulation.
International Monetary Fund
This Selected Issues paper evaluates the size of fiscal multipliers in Korea using the IMF’s Global Integrated Monetary and Fiscal model calibrated for Korea. The sensitivity of the results to a number of key factors is explored. Based on this, the impact of the recent fiscal stimulus packages is estimated and the appropriateness of the current mix of measures is assessed. In this context, the paper also draws on international operational experience with fiscal stimulus measures.
Mr. Cem Karacadag and Mr. Paul J. Heytens
This paper examines the leverage, efficiency, and debt-repayment capacity of the Chinese enterprise sector using aggregate and firm level data. The cash coverage of interest expense, in particular, is used as a bridge between enterprise finances and banks' asset quality in order to develop insights on banking soundness. The interest coverage analysis corroborates the high level of nonperforming loans in the financial system. This underscores the urgency of hardening budget constraints on state-owned enterprises and stemming the flow of new bad loans by accelerating ongoing structural reforms.
Peter Casey and Patricio Castro
Several administrations have adopted electronic fiscal devices (EFDs) in their quest to combat noncompliance, particularly as regards sales and the value-added tax (VAT) payable on sales. The introduction of EFDs typically requires considerable effort and has costs both for the administration and for the taxpayers that are affected by the requirements of the new rules. Despite their widespread use, and their considerable cost, EFDs can only be effective if they are a part of a comprehensive compliance improvement strategy that clearly identifies risks for the different segments of taxpayers and envisages measures to mitigate these risks. EFDs should not be construed as the “silver bullet” for improving tax compliance: as with any other technological improvement the deployment of fiscal devices alone cannot achieve meaningful results, whether in terms of revenue gains or permanent compliance improvements.
Irem Guceri and Ms. Li Liu
With growing academic and policy interest in research and development (R&D) tax incentives, the question about their effectiveness has become ever more relevant. In the absence of an exogenous policy reform, the simultaneous determination of companies’ tax positions and their R&D spending causes an identification problem in evaluating tax incentives. To overcome this identification challenge, we exploit a U.K. policy reform and use the population of corporation tax records that provide precise information on the amount of firm-level R&D expenditure. Using difference-in-differences and other panel regression approaches, we find a positive and significant impact of tax incentives on R&D spending, and an implied user cost elasticity estimate of around -1.6. This translates to more than a pound in additional private R&D for each pound foregone in corporation tax revenue.
International Monetary Fund

The staff report for the combined 2004 Article IV Consultation on the Kyrgyz Republic highlights the economic developments and external policies. The Kyrgyz Republic’s good economic performance owes much to its macroeconomic policies. Fiscal consolidation has helped to stabilize external debt, particularly by containing the externally financed public investment program. The anticipated decline in gold exports calls for actions to diversify exports and preserve cost competitiveness through low inflation and structural reforms to boost productivity growth.

Ruud A. de Mooij
Staff Discussion Notes showcase the latest policy-related analysis and research being developed by individual IMF staff and are published to elicit comment and to further debate. These papers are generally brief and written in nontechnical language, and so are aimed at a broad audience interested in economic policy issues. This Web-only series replaced Staff Position Notes in January 2011.
International Monetary Fund

Croatia’s economy is also saddled with more pervasive rigidities and higher government involvement than many of its transition peers. The Croatian National Bank (CNB) pursued proactive policies, which helped ensure financial sector stability. A stable nominal exchange rate provided an anchor for inflation expectations and financial stability, but also contributed to the accumulation of vulnerabilities. Croatia’s fiscal policy did not take sufficient advantage of the boom years to create adequate space for demand management. Economic recovery is expected to be gradual, with positive growth resuming in the second half of 2010.