You are looking at 1 - 10 of 182 items for :

  • Western Hemisphere x
  • Finance: General x
Clear All


I am very pleased to welcome you to the Seventh Seminar on Central Banking, organized by the IMF Institute (INS) and the Monetary and Exchange Affairs (MAE) Department. These biennial seminars have become a tradition, and we in the International Monetary Fund (Fund) benefit greatly from this opportunity to bring together senior central bankers and policymakers to exchange ideas and develop collective thinking on current issues.

Daniel James and Mr. Matthew I. Saal


In a generally healthy and well-regulated banking system, individual banks can and usually should be allowed to fail. Allowing market discipline and supervisory intervention to weed out weak institutions minimizes moral hazard. Where vulnerability is widespread, however, the potential negative externalities associated with widespread bank failures may call for intervention beyond what can be accomplished by the market or standard supervisory instruments.1 Systemic bank restructuring comprises a comprehensive program to rehabilitate a significant part of a banking system so as to provide vital banking services efficiently on a sustainable basis. Such restructuring programs have been undertaken by some 30 Fund member countries over the last fifteen years in a range of economic and political circumstances.

International Monetary Fund. Fiscal Affairs Dept.


The average fiscal deficit of advanced economies is set to narrow by 1½ percent of GDP in 2013 (in both headline and cyclically adjusted terms), the fastest pace since consolidation efforts started in 2011. This average, however, reflects different trends across countries: some economies are stepping up adjustment efforts, while others are tapering them off, and still others are adopting a looser stance to support growth. Nevertheless, relative to previous projections, fiscal deficits are somewhat larger in most countries, reflecting a weaker economic environment (Figure 1, Table 1). Although 2014 budgets are in most cases still to be fleshed out, fiscal tightening is expected to moderate significantly next year as a large part of the consolidation has already taken place or is close to completion. On average, close to two-thirds of the adjustment required to reach medium-term targets has been achieved in the 10 most highly indebted countries, with the notable exception of Japan.



The factors behind Mexico’s banking crisis should be identified in order to reach a clear diagnosis and, therefore, a clear prescription for handling problems of this sort or, better still, preventing future ones. With the benefit of hindsight, the origins of the crisis can be traced to a combination of factors that, although difficult to disentangle, contributed to the fragility of the banking sector.