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International Monetary Fund. External Relations Dept.

Following is the text of the Communiqué issued by the finance ministers and central bank governors of the Intergovernmental Group of 24 on International Monetary Affairs and Development at the conclusion of their meeting.

International Monetary Fund. Research Dept.
This paper provides a critical survey of the literature on politico-institutional determinants of the government budget. We organize our discussion around two questions: Why did certain OECD countries, but not others, accumulate large public debts? Why did these fiscal imbalances appear in the last twenty years rather than sooner? We begin by discussing the “tax smoothing” model and conclude that this approach alone cannot provide complete answers to these questions. We then proceed to a discussion of political economy models, which we organize into six groups: (1) models based upon opportunistic policy makers and naive voters with “fiscal illusion”; (2) models of intergenerational redistributions; (3) models of debt as a strategic variable, linking the current government with the next one; (4) models of coalition governments; (5) models of geographically dispersed interests; and (6) models emphasizing the effects of budgetary institutions. We conclude by briefly discussing policy implications.
International Monetary Fund. External Relations Dept.
La edición en Internet del Boletín del FMI, que se actualiza varias veces a la semana, contiene numerosos artículos sobre temas de actualidad en el ámbito de las políticas y la economía. Consulte las últimas investigaciones del FMI, lea entrevistas y escuche podcasts de los principales economistas del FMI sobre importantes temas relacionados con la economía mundial. www.imf.org/external/pubs/ft/survey/so/home.aspx
International Monetary Fund. External Relations Dept.
The Web edition of the IMF Survey is updated several times a week, and contains a wealth of articles about topical policy and economic issues in the news. Access the latest IMF research, read interviews, and listen to podcasts given by top IMF economists on important issues in the global economy. www.imf.org/external/pubs/ft/survey/so/home.aspx
Mr. Philip R. Lane and Mr. Gian M Milesi-Ferretti
This paper has two objectives. First, it reviews the recent dynamics of global imbalances (both “flow” and “stock” imbalances), with a special focus on the shifting position of Latin America in the global distribution. Second, it examines the cross-country variation in external adjustment over 2008-2012. In particular, it shows how pre-crisis external imbalances have strong predictive power for post-crisis macroeconomic outcomes, allowing for variation across different exchange rate regimes. We emphasize that the bulk of external adjustment has taken the form of “expenditure reduction”, with “expenditure switching” only playing a limited role.
International Monetary Fund
Update on the Financing of The Poverty Reduction and Growth Facility (PRGF) and the Heavily Indebted Poor Countries (HIPC) Operations and the Subsidization of Post-Conflict Emergency Assistance
International Monetary Fund
This paper proposes the distribution of a portion of the Fund’s general reserve that is attributed to profits from recent Fund gold sales. The proposed distribution is part of a strategy endorsed by the Board in July 2009 involving the use of resources linked to gold sale profits to facilitate members’ contributions towards Poverty Reduction and Growth Trust (PRGT) subsidies. The strategy was formulated in the context of a comprehensive reform of the Fund’s Low Income Country (LIC) facilities and concessional financing framework approved by the Executive Board that included a financing package aimed at ensuring the PRGT’s capacity to lend concessional resources of up to SDR 11.3 billion ($17 billion) during the period 2009–14. The financing package included an agreement to raise SDR 1.5 billion in subsidy resources, of which SDR 0.5–0.6 billion (in end-2008 NPV terms) was expected to be generated from resources linked to profits from gold sales.