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International Monetary Fund. External Relations Dept.
Assemblée annuelle, Communiqué du CMFI, Principes pour fonds souverains, Crise financière mondiale, Comptabilité à la juste valeur, Tensions financières et ralentissements, Crise des subprimes, Où en sont Fannie et Freddie?, Analyse des taux de change, Centres régionaux d'assistance technique, Assistance technique : fonds fiduciaires, Perspectives économiques africaines, Protection contre les chocs exogènes, L'actualité en bref.
International Monetary Fund. External Relations Dept.
Reuniones Anuales, Comunicado del CMFI, Fondos soberanos de inversión, Crisis financiera mundial, Metodologías contables, Impacto del estrés financiero, Crisis hipotecaria, El futuro de Fannie y Freddie, Análisis de tipos de cambio, Centros de asistencia técnica, Fondos fiduciarios de asistencia, Perspectivas económicas de África, Servicio para Shocks Exógenos, Notas breves
International Monetary Fund. External Relations Dept.
Annual Meetings, IMFC Communiqué, Global Financial Stability Report, Sovereign Wealth Fund Principles, Global Financial Crisis, Fair Value Accounting, Financial Stress and Downturns, Subprime Crisis, What Next for Fannie Mae, Freddie Mac?, Exchange Rate Analysis, IMF Technical Assistance Centers, TA Trust Funds, African Economic Outlook, Exogenous Shocks Facility, News Briefs.
Mr. Jesus R Gonzalez-Garcia and Yuanchen Yang
This paper examines the effect of international trade on corporate market power in emerging market economies and developing countries, with a special focus on sub-Saharan Africa. The analysis is based on a large firm-level dataset, tariff data by sector and agreggate indicators of international trade for the period 2000-17. Greater trade liberalization and trade integration are associated with significant declines in market power, with the effect being more pronounced for firms in the manufacturing and ICT sectors, private sector firms, and firms with higher initial markups. Firms in sub-Saharan Africa tend to experience signficantly lower markups after allowing greater trade integration. The effects of trade liberalization on market power materializes over time, and there are significant complementarities between trade reforms and real sector reforms.
Zidong An, Tayeb Ghazi, Nathalie Gonzalez Prieto, and Mr. Aomar Ibourk
This paper investigates the relationship between economic growth and job creation in developing economies with a focus on low and lower middle-income countries along two dimensions: growth patterns and short-run correlations. Analysis on growth patterns shows that regime changes are quite common in both economic growth and employment growth, yet they are not synchronized with each other. Okun’s Law—the short-run relationship between output and labor market—holds in half of the countries in our sample and shows considerable cross-country heterogeneity.
Mr. Francesco Grigoli
The measurement of the efficiency of public education expenditure using parametric and non-parametric methods has proven challenging. This paper seeks to overcome the difficulties of earlier studies by using a hybrid approach to measure the efficiency of secondary education spending in emerging and developing economies. The approach accounts for the impact of the level of development on education outcomes by constructing different efficiency frontiers for lower- and higher-income economies. We find evidence of large potential gains in enrollment rates by improving efficiency. These are largest in lower-income economies, especially in Africa. Reallocating expenditure to reduce student-to-teacher ratios (where these are high) and improving the quality of institutions (as measured by the "governance effectiveness" indicator in the World bank's Governance Indicators database) could help improve the efficiency of education spending. Easing the access to education facilities and reducing income inequality (as measured by the Gini coefficient) could also help improve efficiency.
International Monetary Fund. External Relations Dept.

In 1999, the Poverty Reduction and Growth Facility (PRGF) replaced the IMF’s Enhanced Structural Adjustment Facility (ESAF).