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International Monetary Fund. External Relations Dept.
This paper highlights that one of the most dramatic developments in the 20th century was the entry of women into economic and political spheres previously occupied almost exclusively by men. Although women are making progress in eliminating gender disparities, they still lag men in the workplace and in the halls of government. These gaps are found throughout the world, but are particularly pronounced in developing economies. So far, the greatest success has been in reducing education and health disparities and the least in increasing women’s economic and political influence.
International Monetary Fund
This paper discusses key findings of the Third Review Under the Extended Credit Facility (ECF) for Burundi. In a difficult post-conflict environment, performance on the ECF-supported program was satisfactory. All quantitative performance criteria for end-September 2009 were met, and structural reforms are on track. The closing of off-budget accounts constitutes a major step toward establishment of a single treasury account. The program for 2010 seeks to consolidate economic stability and support gradual recovery of the economy. IMF staff recommends completion of the Third Review based on Burundi’s performance and the strength of the program.
International Monetary Fund
This Selected Issues paper for Sweden reports that the gradual introduction of a detailed fiscal framework accompanied the successful consolidation effort over the last decade in Sweden. The framework includes a surplus target of 2 percent of GDP for the general government, multiyear expenditure ceilings for central government, and a balanced budget requirement for local governments. Reliance on the expertise of an independent agency for the implementation of the fiscal framework could further enhance transparency and strengthen enforcement.
International Monetary Fund. African Dept.
This 2016 Article IV Consultation highlights that the economic growth of Cabo Verde in 2015 stagnated at 1.5 percent, slightly below the 1.9 percent registered in 2014. Tourism recovered and remittances remained robust, but foreign direct investment (FDI) and public investment slowed. The unemployment rate declined to 12.4 percent, as did youth unemployment, which nevertheless remained high at 28.6 percent. Consumer price inflation remained muted owing to lower food and energy prices, averaging 0.1 percent for 2015. In 2016, growth is forecast to recover to 3.2 percent supported by FDI, domestic demand, agriculture, and tourism, which should benefit from the mild upswing in Europe.
International Monetary Fund. Asia and Pacific Dept
This Selected Issues paper discusses measures needed for structural transformation in Sri Lanka. The government has ambitious plans to achieve upper middle-income country status in 2025 by transforming Sri Lanka in an Indian Ocean Hub for trade, investment, and services. Stable and transparent regulatory systems would make Sri Lanka’s business environment more attractive for long-term investment and support trade integration. Reviewing trade barriers and developing a phased and sequenced strategy for gradual removal of restrictions is a first necessary step toward enabling more competitive trade. In this regard, the authorities’ decision to gradually rationalize para-tariffs and set up automated approval systems is a welcome step. Ongoing open consultative processes on reform strategies can also help building public consensus in support of these important objectives.
International Monetary Fund. External Relations Dept.
En mettant l’accent sur le travail du FMI et sur les grandes questions macroéconomiques et financières internationales, le Bulletin du FMI présente une analyse des développements nationaux, régionaux et mondiaux, des informations sur le travail, les politiques, les réformes et les activités d'assistance technique du FMI, les conclusions d'études de calibre mondial, des données essentielles qui ne sont souvent pas disponibles ailleurs, ainsi que des rapports sur les discussions économiques et financières au sein du FMI et ailleurs. Publié douze fois par an, ce bulletin de seize pages s'adresse à un large public : dirigeants, analystes, chercheurs, étudiants et journalistes. Disponible en anglais, français et espagnol.
International Monetary Fund. External Relations Dept.
El Boletín del FMI aborda de manera específica el trabajo del FMI y los grandes temas macroeconómicos y financieros internacionales y ofrece análisis sobre la evolución en los distintos países y regiones y en el mundo; información sobre las operaciones, políticas, reformas y asistencia técnica del FMI; síntesis de las principales investigaciones económicas mundiales; datos fundamentales que no suelen estar disponibles en otras fuentes, e informes sobre debates económicos y financieros que tienen lugar dentro y fuera del FMI. Este boletín de 16 páginas, publicado 12 veces al año, está orientado a una vasta audiencia, que incluye autoridades de política económica, analistas, profesionales del mundo académico y de los medios de difusión y estudiantes. Disponible en inglés, español y francés.
International Monetary Fund. External Relations Dept.
U.S. fiscal outlook; U.S. inflation dynamics; Ireland, FYR Macedonia, El Salvador, Uruguay briefs; Egypt: growth and reform; Canadian female labor participation; EU: Stability and Growth Pact; Suspension of Doha talks; challenges of globalization.
Mr. Bernardin Akitoby, Mr. Jiro Honda, and Hiroaki Miyamoto
Would countercyclical fiscal policy during recessions improve or worsen the gender employment gap? We give an answer to this question by exploring the state-dependent impact of fiscal spending shocks on employment by gender in the G-7 countries. Using the local projection method, we find that, during recessions, a positive spending shock of 1 percent of GDP would, on average, lift female employment by 1 percent, while increasing male employment by 0.6 percent. Consequently such a shock would improve the female share of employment by 0.28 percentage point during recessions. Our findings are driven by disproportionate employment changes in female-friendly industries, occupations, and part-time jobs in response to fiscal spending shocks. The analysis suggests that fiscal stimulus, particularly during recessions, could achieve the twin objectives of supporting aggregate demand and improving gender gaps.