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International Monetary Fund. External Relations Dept.
This paper focuses on the Doha Development Agenda. The paper highlights that over the past 20 years, world trade has grown twice as fast as world real GDP, deepening economic integration and raising living standards. The paper underscores that the launch of a new trade round in Doha in November 2001 was a major breakthrough following the debacle in Seattle in 1999. The new round places the needs and interests of developing countries at the heart of its work, but a successful outcome for rich and poor nations alike is by no means a foregone conclusion.
International Monetary Fund. European Dept.
This paper evaluates observance of the Basel Core Principles for Effective Banking Supervision in the Russian Federation. The legal framework currently in place provides the Central Bank of Russia (CBR) with necessary powers and responsibilities. The CBR may authorize banks, conduct ongoing supervision, oversee compliance with laws, and undertake corrective action to address safety and soundness. Major new reforms increase many aspects of the CBR’s duties and powers, although implementation has not yet been tested in all cases. The Russian licensing regime for banks appears exhaustive. However, the legal regime for major acquisitions was found to be weak.
International Monetary Fund. Middle East and Central Asia Dept.
This 2015 Article IV Consultation highlights that against the backdrop of external shocks, economic growth and inflation in Kazakhstan have decelerated. Financial conditions have tightened, and external imbalances are emerging. Real GDP growth slowed to an annualized 2 percent during the first quarter of 2015, down from about 4 percent in 2014 and 6 percent in 2013. In addition to weaker external demand, slower growth was driven by the impact of lower income and profitability and confidence effects on private consumption and domestic investment. Real GDP growth is projected to decelerate to 2 percent in 2015, owing to weaker demand from Russia and China, lower oil prices, confidence effects, and continuing delays in the Kashagan oil field.
International Monetary Fund
This paper presents a Detailed Assessment and Updates of Financial Sector Standards and Codes for Kazakhstan. The assessment reveals that although Kazakhstan’s banking system is liquid, there are significant variations from bank to bank, with the distinctions between the tenge and foreign exchange liquidity being quite important. An appropriate body of commercial law is in place, and both banks and the supervisory authority express general satisfaction with the functioning of the systems for registration of collateral and enforcement of security interests.
International Monetary Fund. Middle East and Central Asia Dept.
This paper analyzes the Republic of Kazakhstan’s 2013 Article of Consultation. The IMF report focuses on vision of developing Kazakhstan into a leading emerging market economy requires concerted efforts to strengthen the policy architecture. It highlights the importance of enhancing the diversification strategy by strengthening institutions, the business environment, and human capital, while carefully managing the country’s oil wealth. It also discusses that the unification of the pension funds has become a policy priority. The medium-term growth prospects appear to be strong, driven by a substantial projected increase in oil output.
Mr. George T. Abed and Mr. Hamid R Davoodi
Recent studies have highlighted the adverse impact of corruption on economic performance. This paper advances the hypothesis that corruption is largely a symptom of underlying weaknesses in public policies and institutions, a formulation that provides deeper insights into economic performance than do measures of “perceived corruption.” The hypothesis is tested by assessing the relative importance of structural reforms vs. corruption in explaining macroeconomic performance in the transition economies. The paper finds that for four widely used measures of economic performance—growth, inflation, the fiscal balance, and foreign direct investment—structural reforms tend to dominate the corruption variable.
International Monetary Fund

This paper presents a Detailed Assessment and Updates of Financial Sector Standards and Codes for Kazakhstan. The assessment reveals that although Kazakhstan’s banking system is liquid, there are significant variations from bank to bank, with the distinctions between the tenge and foreign exchange liquidity being quite important. An appropriate body of commercial law is in place, and both banks and the supervisory authority express general satisfaction with the functioning of the systems for registration of collateral and enforcement of security interests.

International Monetary Fund

This Selected Issues paper analyzes the optimal policy response on the part of the Kazakhstan authorities to the prospective oil inflows. It surveys the literature on the so-called natural resource curse and offers an analysis of Kazakhstan’s petroleum potential. The paper analyzes the impact of the oil boom on the non-oil sector, based on a general equilibrium model. It provides an analysis of fiscal rules and fiscal sustainability and assesses the possible role of fiscal policies in addressing the “natural resource curse.”

International Monetary Fund

This 2012 Article IV Consultation reports that fiscal and monetary policies have adapted to the economic recovery in the Republic of Kazakhstan. The authorities have appropriately responded to the upswing in the cycle by gradually tightening fiscal policy and sterilizing excess bank liquidity. Directors have commended the authorities’ policies that, together with high commodity prices, yielded a strong economic recovery. Directors have also appreciated the preparation of plans to deal with a possible protracted global slowdown and a decline in oil prices.

International Monetary Fund. Middle East and Central Asia Dept.

KEY ISSUESContext: Solid growth in recent years, supported by high oil prices and output, has boosted living standards. This year, the economy is slowing down, in large part because of weaker domestic and external demand, and regional tensions. Inflation is expected to accelerate temporarily due to the devaluation of the tenge (February 2014). Enhancing the policy architecture and promoting a business environment unencumbered by the state remain key challenges for Kazakhstan to become a dynamic emerging market economy and ensure durable and balanced long-term growth. The recent reappointment of Prime Minister Massimov was accompanied by the authorities’ commitment to speeding up structural reforms. In this context, the government is strengthening its links with the multilateral development banks (MDBs). The May29 signing of the Eurasian Economic Union (EEU), with Russia and Belarus, is not expected to have near-term economic effects; medium-term effects will depend on how the Union’s rules and regulations will be implemented.Focus of consultation and key recommendations: Amid uncertain external and domestic environments, the consultation focused on policy measures to mitigate shocks and achieve the authorities’ short- and medium-term objectives, in particular:(i) restoring confidence and stability in the post-devaluation environment; (ii) resolving the nonperforming loans (NPL) problem, in line with the recent FSAP recommendations;(iii) bolstering the monetary and fiscal policy frameworks, as recommended last year; and(iv) accelerating structural reforms, including the implementation of industrialization and diversification policies carefully and transparently.Previous consultation: During the 2013 Article IV Consultation, Directors encouraged the authorities to take advantage of the positive outlook to strengthen the macroeconomic policy architecture, including by (i) showing greater determination to addressing the high level of NPLs; (ii) following through on the planned introduction of a new policy interest rate to enhance the transmission mechanism of monetary policy; and(iii) revamping the medium-term fiscal framework through improved coverage and transparency. Since then, the authorities have been more resolute in dealing with the NPL problem. However, progress in strengthening the monetary and fiscal policy frameworks has been slow.