International Monetary Fund. External Relations Dept.
This paper highlights that in the first quarter of 1979, the IMF took further steps to enhance its ability to promote orderly world economic growth with reasonable price stability as a means of achieving a stable system of exchange rates. It adopted several measures designed to make the special drawing right the principal reserve asset in the world monetary system. The Interim Committee reaffirmed these aims, expressing broad support for measures that the IMF’s Executive Board has adopted, or is actively considering, in furthering these goals.
This paper examines compensatory financing facility in the IMF. Compensatory financing facilities are easy to administer and can give immediate relief to primary exporting countries when their export earnings fall. The IMF’s compensatory financing facility was established in 1963, but only 57 drawings, totaling SDR 1.2 billion, were made during its first 13 years. A turning point was the liberalization of the facility in December 1975, which occurred when commodity prices were at their trough because of the severe recession in 1975. From January 1976 to March 1980, there were 107 drawings totaling SDR 4.0 billion under the facility.
In recent years, the IMF has released a growing number of reports and other documents covering economic and financial developments and trends in member countries. Each report, prepared by a staff team after discussions with government officials, is published at the option of the member country.
This paper reviews economic developments in Sudan during 1997–99. Sudan initiated reforms under the 1997 and 1998 Staff-Monitored Programs. Real GDP growth accelerated modestly to an annual average of about 6 percent during 1997–98. Inflation declined from an average of 133 percent in 1996 to 17 percent in 1998. Fiscal revenue buoyancy has increased markedly after years of stagnation at low levels and, coupled with an improvement in budget control, has succeeded in sharply reducing the overall budget deficit. Aided by positive real rates of returns, financial disintermediation has been halted.
This Statistical Appendix report on Sudan discusses economic indicators for the period 1994–2000. The report discusses gross domestic product; agricultural production; yield of cotton and noncotton crops; livestock production; manufacturing production; electricity tariff data; consumer and wholesale price indices; central government revenue and expenditure details; official exchange rates; analytical accounts of deposit money banks; monetary authorities' accounts; summary balance of payments; export and import data; loan disbursements; external public debt; and so on.
This paper reports the results of some preliminary research into the repercussions, for income distribution, of stabilization programs associated with the use of IMF resources in the upper credit tranches. In the first section, it explores the relationship between the balance of payments and the distribution of income from a theoretical perspective. The general concern is whether adjustment influences the distribution of income in some systematic manner; the concern is to delineate the conditions under which a decline in the real wage is necessary for adjustment actually to take place. Using neoclassical analysis, one finds that the ratio of the nominal wage to the price of exports must decline, but whether this involves a fall in the overall real wage depends on many variables, including the relative proportions of traded and nontraded goods in the consumer's market basket. Second, it presents a qualitative analysis of the distributional effects of the measures that tend to be included in these programs, viz., ceilings on net credit expansion, currency depreciation, and the relaxation and simplification of exchange restrictions and controls.
Sudanese inflation dramatically fell in 2000. But just prior to the sharp decline, an export ban was placed on Sudanese livestock. Motivated by this clue, and in the absence of any reliable income or employment data, this paper systematically develops simultaneous models of the consumer price index (CPI) and the exchange rate to assess the economic impact of the export ban. It finds that livestock exports play a large economic role as an important source of income and as a store of value. In the long run, livestock exports are positively associated with nonfood inflation. In the short run, food price movements are negatively associated with livestock exports: to help smooth income, lower food prices generate increased livestock exports. Therefore, unable to export livestock, farmers may have flooded the local market with meat, lowering food prices. Moreover, the loss of income and the decline in wealth lowered aggregate demand, leading to the decline in nonfood prices.
This paper examines the IMF’s role in the changing world. Faced with mounting domestic and external financial imbalances, numerous African countries adopted adjustment programs supported by the use of IMF resources during 1980–81. Considerable emphasis has been given to economic growth in programs under consideration and most aimed for an increase in economic growth during the program year. Although programs generally emphasized an improvement in the external sector position, medium-term considerations did not always allow for an improvement in the current account position.
International Monetary Fund. Middle East and Central Asia Dept.
Staff Report for the 2012 Article IV consultation, prepared by a staff team of the IMF, following discussions that ended on July 23, 2012, with the officials of Sudan on economic developments and policies. Based on information available at the time of these discussions, the staff report was completed on September 7, 2012. The views expressed in the staff report are those of the staff team and do not necessarily reflect the views of the Executive Board of the IMF.
Economic growth is estimated to have moderated further in 2010 to about 5 percent, reflecting slower growth in both the oil and non-oil sectors. The overall commitment fiscal deficit for 2010 is now estimated at 2.7 percent of GDP, about 0.6 percentage point of GDP below the program target. Monetary policy was expansionary in the first half of 2010, but was subsequently tightened. The current account deficit narrowed during the first three quarters of 2010 largely driven by an increase in oil exports.