John Finger, J. Michael Nash, Kenneth King, William McGreevey, Vikram Khanna, and Erich Spitaeller
SlNCE the dissolution of the Soviet Union, most of the former member states have retained the ruble as their national currency but have followed independent monetary policies. Such a combination is not sustainable. With mounting disarray in the ruble area, each state must now quickly adopt either a common monetary policy or a separate national currency.
This paper reviews the significant macro-fiscal challenges posed by climate change in
Djibouti and the costs of mitigation and adaptation policies. The paper concludes that
Djibouti is susceptible to climate change and related costs are potentially large. Investing
now in adaptation and mitigation has large benefits in terms of reducing the related costs in
the future. Reforms to generate the fiscal space are therefore needed and investment for
mitigation and adaptation to climate change should be built into the long-term fiscal
projections. Finally, concerted international efforts and stepping up regional cooperation
could help moderate climate-related macro-fiscal risks.
Luc Eyraud, Ms. Changchang Zhang, Mr. Abdoul A Wane, and Mr. Benedict J. Clements
This paper fills a gap in the macroeconomic literature on renewable sources of energy. It offers a definition of green investment and analyzes the trends and determinants of this investment over the last decade for 35 advanced and emerging countries. We use a new multi-country historical dataset and find that green investment has become a key driver of the energy sector and that its rapid growth is now mostly driven by China. Our econometric results suggest that green investment is boosted by economic growth, a sound financial system conducive to low interest rates, and high fuel prices. We also find that some policy interventions, such as the introduction of carbon pricing schemes, or "feed-in-tariffs," which require use of "green" energy, have a positive and significant impact on green investment. Other interventions, such as biofuel support, do not appear to be associated with higher green investment.
Nicoletta Batini, Mario di Serio, Matteo Fragetta, and Mr. Giovanni Melina
This paper estimates multipliers for spending in clean energy and biodiversity conservation to help inform stimulus measures for a post-COVID-19 sustainable recovery. Using a new international dataset, part of which was especially assembled for this analysis, we find that every dollar spent on key carbon-neutral or carbon-sink activities—from zero-emission power plants to the protection of wildlife and ecosystems—can generate more than a dollar’s worth of economic activity. The estimated multipliers associated with green spending are about 2 to 7 times larger than those associated with non-eco-friendly expenditure, depending on sectors, technologies and horizons. These findings survive several robustness checks and suggest that ‘building back better’ could be a win-win for economies and the planet.