International Monetary Fund. External Relations Dept.
Across Africa, IMF monetary and financial sector experts are helping to develop and strengthen institutions, markets, and capacity to formulate and implement sound monetary and financial policies. Positive impact from this help is reflected in stronger financial systems that support high sustained growth rates.
In recent years, the IMF has released a growing number of reports and other documents covering economic and financial developments and trends in member countries. Each report, prepared by a staff team after discussions with government officials, is published at the option of the member country.
International Monetary Fund. Communications Department
This issue of Finance & Development presents success and works of IMF in the past 75 years since its formation. The IMF’s financial firepower must be increased substantially, particularly in a world of relatively free capital flows. If the world of cooperative globalization is to survive and the IMF is to maintain its role within it, a great deal must change. Some of these changes are within the IMF’s control. The most important challenges for the IMF of tomorrow are, however, those created by the changing world. Global cooperation is needed to reap the benefits and avoid the pitfalls of cross-border capital flows. Cross-border capital flows are neither an unmitigated blessing nor an undoubted curse. Used judiciously, they can be beneficial to recipient countries, making up deficiencies in the availability of long-term risk capital and reducing gaps in local corporate governance. Many emerging market economies have understood that they should build foreign exchange reserves. The IMF model suggests that fluctuations in the exchange rate are the main reason for fluctuations in corporate liquidity in receiving countries.
This paper discusses Rwanda’s Seventh Review Under the Policy Support Instrument (PSI), Request for a Three-Year PSI and Cancellation of Current PSI. Progress under the PSI has continued to be satisfactory. Except for the ceiling on nonconcessional borrowing (NCB), all quantitative assessment criteria were met. All indicative targets and structural benchmarks were also met. The nonobservance of the NCB ceiling came about when the authorities allowed Rwandair to contract a new US$50.7 million external loan in July. Presently, the IMF staff recommends a waiver on the basis of the authorities’ commitment to prevent any reoccurrence.
Rwanda has responded to lower aid by tightening policies and drawing on its foreign reserves to cushion the impact on the economy. Economic activity has been resilient despite lower aid inflows. The agreed framework for the FY2013/14 budget is in line with Policy Support Instrument (PSI) objectives. The government’s intention to develop a comprehensive plan for enhancing domestic revenue mobilization over the medium term is timely. Rwanda’s new poverty reduction strategy (EDPRS2) and the commitment to tighten the monetary stance while allowing greater exchange rate flexibility is encouraging.
The key objective of this note is to support authorities
in their decision making about the optimal
organization of central securities depositories (CSDs)
in their country. For the purpose of this note, a CSD
is defined as an entity that provides securities accounts,
a securities settlement system, and central safekeeping
services to market participants, which can be banks
and other financial institutions.
Authorities in developing markets, in particular central banks, may grapple with two questions: (1) whether to pursue a single CSD to increase market efficiencies and benefit from economies of scale and scope and (2) whether to partake in the governance of the CSD as owner or operator.
This note presents seven considerations for authorities to take into account when answering these questions and determining the best model for their country.
In this study, the processes involved in the financial stability of Rwanda after the global crisis are imparted. High growth and major risks included in macroeconomic stability are analyzed. In the case of the banking sector, the structure, performance, and competition of Rwandan banks are outlined. The steps to strengthen regulation and supervision of banks are included in this study. Systemic liquidity management, payment system, and insolvency and creditor rights are explained under financial structure infrastructure. Issues related to the development of housing, pension, and insurance are also discussed.
This Selected Issues paper describes Uganda’s experience under the 2013 Policy Support Instrument (PSI). The current 2013 PSI was approved by the IMF’s Executive Board in June 2013 with an initial duration of three years. Overall, performance under this PSI has been assessed to be satisfactory. Most quantitative assessment criteria were met, and macroeconomic stability maintained. However, the pace of structural reforms slowed down compared with the past, and only about half of the structural benchmarks were ultimately met. The experience shows the importance of ensuring commitment to the reforms, explaining them better, and getting broad-based buy-in to achieve progress.
The IMF Research Bulletin, a quarterly publication, selectively summarizes research and analytical work done by various departments at the IMF, and also provides a listing of research documents and other research-related activities, including conferences and seminars. The Bulletin is intended to serve as a summary guide to research done at the IMF on various topics, and to provide a better perspective on the analytical underpinnings of the IMF’s operational work.