International Monetary Fund. External Relations Dept.
This paper highlights that since its inception in 1956, the International Finance Corporation (IFC) has invested more than US$1.7 billion in nearly 300 enterprises in 62 developing countries in total projects costing about US$9 billion. The IFC is the affiliate of the World Bank, which has been given the specific task of furthering economic development by encouraging the growth of productive private enterprise in developing countries. The paper underscores that IFC plays an essentially catalytic role in generating investment funds from local and foreign sources.
International Monetary Fund. External Relations Dept.
The Two Faces of Financial Globalization looks at the phenomenon of rising cross-border financial flows-credited with boosting growth in developing countries but also blamed for the emerging market crises of the late 1980s and 1990s. The lead article puts together a framework for analyzing studies about the costs and benefits of financial globalization. Other articles look at the worldwide allocation of capital, the role of finance in macroeconomic management, and changes in the investor base. "Picture This" illustrates the growth and direction of capital flows. One guest contributor describes India's capital account liberalization, and another looks at how participants in international finance can cope with a fluid financial landscape. "People in Economics" profiles Guillermo Calvo; "Back to Basics" explains the difference between the purchasing power parity exchange rate and market exchange rates as measures of global economic growth; and "Country Focus" spotlights Australia.
This selected issues paper on Indonesia was prepared by a staff team of the International Monetary Fund as background documentation for the periodic consultation with the member country. It is based on the information available at the time it was completed on August 21, 2012. The views expressed in this document are those of the staff team and do not necessarily reflect the views of the government of Indonesia or the Executive Board of the IMF.
This Technical Assistance (TA) Report on the Philippines discusses the fiscal regime for the mining sector. The Philippines has long been a producer of minerals, but the mining and petroleum sectors account for only a small share of the economy, exports, and government revenue. The petroleum sector comprises only two fields—one producing natural gas and condensate and one producing crude oil. The TA report suggests legislative reforms of financial and technical assistance agreements (FTAAs), repealing of tax incentives and consolidating all domestic tax rules, and fostering sound environmental practices.
This Technical Assistance Report evaluates the National Accounts Mission in Mongolia. Mongolia’s national accounts statistics were found to be broadly adequate for IMF surveillance according to the most recent IMF Staff Report. The National Statistics Office is commended for having compiled the existing GDP data and for continuing to implement the current international standard. However, several areas for further improvement in national accounts statistics should be incorporated into the work program. These include the need to secure the National Statistics Office’s new institutional structure and enhance its staff’s skills mix, improve coordination among stakeholders, and upgrade the survey forms currently in use in order to compile enhanced estimates of GDP.
This Selected Issues paper examines recent economic developments in Sierra Leone. The paper highlights that the economic recovery in Sierra Leone has benefited especially from the extensive rehabilitation and humanitarian activities in liberated areas. Real GDP growth rose by 4 percent in 2000 and accelerated further in 2001 and 2002. The paper lays out some conceptual issues for the analysis of government debt sustainability, and discusses key issues related to long-term fiscal sustainability. The challenges ahead for rehabilitating Sierra Leone’s mining sector are also examined.
International Monetary Fund. Asia and Pacific Dept
This 2017 Article IV Consultation highlights Mongolia’s promising longer-term prospects given its abundant natural resources. In recent years, however, the economy has faced substantial challenges, as external shocks and expansionary fiscal and monetary policies have compounded structural weaknesses. Mongolia remains heavily exposed to external shocks, given its export profile, and a key challenge will be to avoid the boom-bust cycles of the past. The discussions with authorities have focused on improving the fiscal framework and strengthening policy discipline, complemented by structural reforms to boost diversification and competitiveness and by efforts to strengthen and better target the social safety net.
This Selected Issues paper and Statistical Appendix for the Lao People’s Democratic Republic (PDR) review the macroeconomic impact of the resource sector. Lao PDR’s economic performance is becoming increasingly dependent on the activities of the large mining and hydropower projects. The economic value of the resource projects is significant, even if only proven mineral reserves and hydropower plants are considered. The overall macroeconomic impact of the resource sector over the medium term will depend on the quality and timeliness of the policies adopted to sustain the growth of the non-resource sector.
Despite the difficult global environment, economic growth in Mozambique has remained buoyant. Inflation has come down more rapidly than anticipated. Foreign direct investment in the natural resource sector has resulted in rapid import growth. The contribution of coal production and exports and the implementation of large infrastructure projects are projected to boost economic growth. However, capacity building is urgently needed for the country to secure full benefits from an imminent natural resource boom. New mining and hydrocarbon framework laws have also been prepared.