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  • Agriculture: Aggregate Supply and Demand Analysis; Prices x
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Ms. Laura Wallace

In recent months, prices of oil, nickel, tin, corn, and wheat have hit record highs, building on dramatic increases since their lows of 2000. What does this mean for sub-Saharan Africa, a highly diverse region of net commodity importers and exporters?

Owaise Saadat and Francis van Gigch

The Bank’s experience with rural farm production in West Africa indicates a wide range of factors that could be adjusted to improve production. These include factors directly affecting yields, as well as those aimed at improving the general policy environment in which farmers function.

International Monetary Fund. External Relations Dept.

THE SOVIET experience teaches at least one cautionary lesson: development strategies emphasizing state-administered investment may produce rapid growth at first but are prone to eventual stagnation.

International Monetary Fund. External Relations Dept.

The September 2008 issue examines key issues facing low-income countries, including how they should respond to high oil and food prices. Some African economies are now successfully attracting international investors and are seen as a new tier of "frontier" emerging markets. Separate articles look at problems of aid effectiveness, aid predictability, and aid fragmentation. Other articles include an account by Eswar S. Prasad and Raghuram G. Rajan of their new report on financial sector reforms in India; Martin Ravallion and Dominique van de Walle draw lessons on reducing poverty from Vietnam's agrarian reforms; Sanjeev Gupta and Shamsuddin Tareq make a strong case for sub-Saharan countries to mobilize their domestic revenue bases. In addition, Simon Willson profiles Beatrice Weder di Mauro, the first woman on Germany's Council of Economic Experts; and the outgoing IMF Chief Economic Simon Johnson talks about the new drivers of global growth-emerging markets.

International Monetary Fund. African Dept.

Abstract

La reprise est bien engagée en Afrique subsaharienne, mais on constate des variations de rythme entre groupes de pays. La plupart des pays à faible revenu et des pays exportateurs de pétrole ont presque retrouvé leur taux de croissance d'avant la crise. Par contre, le redressement se fait plus progressivement dans les pays à revenu intermédiaire de la région, dont l'Afrique du Sud. Cette édition des Perspectives économiques régionales décrit les incidences de l'évolution économique récente : les fortes hausses des cours des denrées alimentaires et du pétrole nécessiteront des interventions budgétaires en faveur des pauvres, tandis que l'augmentation des cours pétroliers fera le bonheur de certains pays, mais le malheur d'autres. Il sera nécessaire d'abandonner les mesures de soutiens à l'activité qui ont caractérisé les politiques menées ces dernières années, tout en atténuant les conséquences de la hausse des prix des denrées alimentaires pour les ménages pauvres.

International Monetary Fund. African Dept.

Abstract

Selon ce rapport, les perspectives se sont quelque peu dégradées pour l'Afrique subsaharienne, et les risques ont augmenté. La croissance devrait diminuer dans la région, s'établissant à 6 % en 2008 et 2009. Cette dégradation tient principalement à l'envolée mondiale des prix des denrées alimentaires et des carburants, qui pèse fortement sur la croissance des pays importateurs de pétrole, ainsi qu'aux turbulences financières mondiales, qui ont freiné la croissance mondiale et la demande d'exportations en provenance de l'Afrique. L'inflation devrait atteindre 12 % en 2008, en raison principalement du choc sur les prix des denrées alimentaires et du pétrole. À cause de la hausse des prix, en particulier des prix alimentaires, il est fort possible que la pauvreté s'aggrave en 2008. En 2009, l'inflation devrait diminuer pour s'établir à 10 %, en raison de la baisse récente des prix des produits de base. Des risques considérables pèsent sur les perspectives, car les turbulences financières mondiales pourraient s'aggraver et se prolonger, entraînant un ralentissement accru de l'activité économique mondiale, et car les prix des produits de base restent entourés d'une grande incertitude.

International Monetary Fund. African Dept.

Abstract

Sub-Saharan Africa's economic recovery is well under way, although among country groups there is variation in the speed of the recovery. In most of the region's low-income countries and among the seven oil exporters growth is almost back to precrisis levels. However, in the region's middle-income countries, including South Africa, the recovery has been more gradual. This Regional Economic Outlook describes the impact of recent economic developments---sharp increases in food and fuel prices will need fiscal interventions targeting the poor, while higher oil prices will be a boon to some countries and adversely affect others. Policy adjustments are needed to move away from the supportive stance of the last few years but should be balanced against the need to alleviate the impact of rising food prices on poor households.

International Monetary Fund. African Dept.

Abstract

Sub-Saharan Africa's prospects have deteriorated somewhat and the risks have increased, according to this report. Growth in the region is projected to dip to 6 percent in 2008 and 2009. The fall is due mainly to the global food and fuel price shock, which has weighed particularly on growth in oil-importing countries, and to the global financial market turmoil, which has slowed global growth and demand for Africa's exports. Inflation is expected to rise to 12 percent in 2008, mainly on account of the food and fuel price shock. As a result of rising prices, particularly of food, poverty may well be on the increase in 2008. In 2009, inflation should ease to 10 percent, helped by recent commodity price declines. There are significant risks to the outlook related to a potentially deeper and longer period of global financial turmoil and resulting slowdown in global activity, and substantial uncertainty concerning commodity prices.