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R. Portes, A. Swoboda, W.M. Scammel, Robert Hormats, Bahram Nowzad, Philip Cagan, Frederick Ribe, Martin Feldstei, Lan Bovenberg, Sebastian Edward, Mr. Liaquat Ahamed, Anthony Lanyi, Susan Joeke, Masooma Habib, H.W. Arndt, and Robert Picciotto

This paper discusses the structural adjustment in low-income countries. In the first 20 months of its operations, the IMF’s structural adjustment facility (SAF) has provided concessional financial assistance to support the balance-of-payments adjustment efforts of 21 low-income member countries. Most SAF arrangements have supported policy reform programs that have also received support under other IMF facilities. The fundamental concept underlying the SAF is the notion that growth and adjustment are mutually reinforcing.

Ms. Janet Gale Stotsky, Ms. Lisa L Kolovich, and Suhaib Kebhaj
Gender budgeting is an initiative to use fiscal policy and administration to address gender inequality and women’s advancement. A large number of sub-Saharan African countries have adopted gender budgeting. Two countries that have achieved notable success in their efforts are Uganda and Rwanda, both of which have integrated gender-oriented goals into budget policies, programs, and processes in fundamental ways. Other countries have made more limited progress in introducing gender budgeting into their budget-making. Leadership by the ministry of finance is critical for enduring effects, although nongovernmental organizations and parliamentary bodies in sub-Saharan Africa play an essential role in advocating for gender budgeting.