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International Monetary Fund

The Selected Issues paper analyzes the determinants of growth in Albania, the macroeconomic underpinnings for growth, the role of remittances in the economy, and the policy response to rapid credit growth. It also analyzes the official estimates with estimates from various macroeconomic surveys, and discusses the implications for the structure of the balance of payments. It also provides a framework for analyzing the budgetary impact of remittances in Albania, and examines the acceleration of credit growth and the policy options available to address the resulting macroeconomic and prudential concerns.

International Monetary Fund
The Australian legal and regulatory framework for securities markets exhibits a high level of compliance with the International Organization of Securities Commissions (IOSCO) Principles. A few remaining concerns need to be resolved, including some identified in the 2006 assessment. Australian Securities and Investments Commission’s (ASIC) operational independence and sufficiency of resources are overarching concerns which impair its ability to discharge its supervisory functions adequately and effectively across the entire regulated population.
International Monetary Fund
This paper presents key findings of the detailed assessment on the implementation of the International Organization of Securities Commissions (IOSCO) objectives and principles of securities regulation for Thailand. The assessment recommends creating a formal coordination mechanism among governmental agencies with regulatory authority over capital markets. The Securities and Exchange Commission (SEC) should amend its code of conduct and provide that restrictions on securities investments by its staff also applies to spouses, minor children, and all other accounts over which an employee has the authority to make investment decisions.
International Monetary Fund
The Netherlands Authority for Financial Markets (AFM) has developed a robust supervisory framework, which exhibits high levels of implementation of the International Organization of Securities Commissions Principles. The AFM’s efforts are complemented by The NetherlandsCentral bank's (DNB) program of prudential supervision, which is reasonable and credible. Gaps in the legal framework for issuers, and on management of collective investment schemes, in the case of the DNB, have imposed limitations. Their ability to react in a swift manner to emerging risks in the financial sector is limited.
International Monetary Fund
This study reviews selected issues on investor protection and corporate governance in Australia, and concludes that the corporate governance framework for Australian-listed companies is largely healthy and dynamic. Shareholder activism is an important element of corporate governance because it promotes compliance and implementation of disclosure and corporate governance obligations. The legislative and regulatory framework in Australia includes disclosure requirements that meet or exceed the requirements that exist in many other countries. Disclosure and transparency are key components of the OECD Principles of Corporate Governance.
International Monetary Fund. Monetary and Capital Markets Department
This paper discusses key findings of the Detailed Assessment of Implementation of the IOSCO (International Organization of Securities Commissions) Objectives and Principles of Securities Regulation on the United States. The United States has large, well-developed, and complex securities and derivatives markets. Postcrisis, the legal mandates of the Securities and Exchange Commission (SEC) and the Commodity Futures Trading Commission (CFTC) have significantly expanded. The level of funding of both the SEC and CFTC is a key challenge affecting their ability to deliver on their mandates in a way that provides confidence to markets and investors. The fragmented structure of equity markets remains a key challenge for the SEC.
International Monetary Fund. Monetary and Capital Markets Department
This Financial Sector Assessment Program report on People’s Republic of China–Hong Kong Special Administrative Region highlights that it has developed a sound framework for the regulation of securities markets, which exhibits a high level of implementation of the International Organization of Securities Commissions Principles. Both the Securities and Futures Commission (SFC) and the Hong Kong Monetary Authority (HKMA) are sophisticated regulators and have been able to leverage from domestic and international expertise to develop sound supervisory practices. Further, while traumatic, the Lehman minibond experience has led to material improvements in conduct supervision that have permeated both the SFC and the HKMA. Continuing efforts by the SFC to build up its capacity to identify and monitor emerging risks should increase the SFC’s ability to react in a timely manner to an evolving landscape, marked by an increased interconnection with the Mainland China, an active presence by international players and increased regional competition as an international finance center. It is important to consider translating the operational independence that the regulators have enjoyed into de-jure independence, through modifications in the current legal governance arrangements for both SFC and HKMA.
International Monetary Fund. Monetary and Capital Markets Department
SUMMARY The Korean authorities have made significant progress since the last FSAP in revising the securities regulatory framework, with the current framework achieving good overall compliance with the International Organization of Securities Commissions (IOSCO) Principles. Importantly, the earlier legal impediments to international cooperation and exchange of information have been removed. Since 2011, Korea also applies the Korean International Financial Reporting Standards (K-IFRS) that follow the International Financial Reporting Standards (IFRS). Although the regulators’ responsibilities are defined in legislation, the complexity of the structure obscures the transparency of the decision-making processes. The responsibility for deciding on a particular supervisory or enforcement action can lie either at the Financial Services Commission (FSC), Securities and Futures Commission (SFC), or Financial Supervisory Service (FSS), depending on the nature and gravity of action, but it is not always clear which one of them is ultimately in charge. The process is further complicated by the use of pre-deliberation committees at various levels. Self-regulatory organizations—the Korea Exchange (KRX), the Korea Financial Investment Association (KOFIA) and the Korean Institute of Certified Public Accountants (KICPA)— also play a role in the regulatory and supervisory processes. Publication of additional information on the decision-making structure and processes would be beneficial. Operational cooperation and coordination between the various authorities is currently addressed by having the agencies represented in each others’ decision-making bodies. However, the full participation of the Minister of Strategy and Finance at the FSC Board has the potential of compromising the independence of the FSC’s supervisory and enforcement decisions. Consideration should be given on how best to mitigate the potential for undue political influence arising from such governance arrangements by, for example, restricting the participation of the Minister of Strategy and Finance in the supervisory and enforcement decisions. Attention should also be paid to ensuring that the various arrangements for gathering commercial input provide for equal and transparent treatment of market participants.
International Monetary Fund. Monetary and Capital Markets Department
This paper discusses main findings of the Detailed Assessment of Observance of International Organization of Securities Commissions (IOSCO) Objectives and Principles of Securities Regulation in Italy. Italy exhibits a high level of implementation of the IOSCO principles. Overall the legal and regulatory framework is sound, and the regulatory authorities have developed extremely sophisticated arrangements for off-site supervision that have resulted in a robust system of supervision. However, these arrangements need to be complemented by additional on-site inspections to make the system more effective. In addition, the enforcement strategy should be continuously monitored to ensure that there is the right mix of tools to affect behavior.
International Monetary Fund. African Dept.
An assessment of the level of implementation of the International Organization of Securities Commissions (IOSCO) Principles in Nigeria was conducted as part of the International Monetary Fund (IMF)-World Bank Financial Sector Assessment Program (FSAP). The ongoing global financial crisis has reinforced the need for assessors to make a judgment about supervisory practices and to determine whether they are sufficiently effective. The assessment methodology provides a set of assessment criteria to be met in respect of each principle to achieve the designated benchmarks.