Sound macroeconomic policies, good governance, and high levels of investment, supported by diamond and other mineral production, have moved Botswana into the ranks of middle-income countries. Maintaining fiscal surpluses over the medium term is essential to accumulate savings for the period when diamond revenues decline. Striking an appropriate balance between monetary and exchange rate policy objectives is critical. The banking sector is sound and near-term risks are well contained, but there is scope for financial sector reform. Continued structural reform and improvements in statistics are essential.
This paper reviews the experiences of a few countries in Sub-Saharan Africa that have succeeded in attracting fairly large amounts of foreign investment. The review indicates that sustained efforts to promote political and macroeconomic stability and implement essential structural reforms have been the key elements contributing to the success that certain countries in Africa have achieved in attracting a substantial volume of FDI. Strong leadership, which has helped promote democracy and overcome social and political strife, and a firm commitment to economic reform have been important determinants. The adoption of sound fiscal and monetary policies, supported by an appropriate exchange rate policy, and a proactive approach to removing structural impediments to private sector activity have had a positive bearing on investor sentiment. The analysis underscores the importance of relying on stability and a broad-based reform effort to encourage foreign investment in Africa.