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International Monetary Fund
This paper reviews Observance of Standards and Codes on the Financial Action Task Force (FATF) Recommendations for Anti-Money Laundering and Combating the Financing of Terrorism (AML/CFT) for Switzerland. The paper discusses that The Federal Banking Commission (CFB) is the oversight body for banks, securities dealers, and fund managers in Switzerland. The intermediaries under its control may also join a self-regulatory organization that can set minimum standards. Nevertheless, the power to specify the rules for implementing the LBA (Loi sur le blanchiment d’argent) and to enforce those rules is essentially reserved to the oversight authority.
International Monetary Fund
Liechtenstein has a GDP of US$5.2 billion, of which 40 percent comes from industry and 30 percent from financial services. Currently, 15 banks operate in Liechtenstein (one additional bank is in the process of being wound down without loss to the depositors). The market is highly concentrated with the three largest banks accounting for 90 percent of the total banking balance sheet size; 86 percent of assets under management; 89 percent of operating profits before tax, and 63 percent of employment in the banking sector.
International Monetary Fund
This report summarizes the assessment of Liechtenstein's compliance with internationally accepted standards for the regulatory and supervisory arrangements of the financial sector. It provides detailed assessments of Liechtenstein’s implementation of international supervisory and regulatory standards relative to the Basel Core Principles (BCP) for effective banking supervision, International Association of Insurance Supervisors (IAIS) core principles for insurance Supervision, the International Organization of Securities Commissions (IOSCO) Objectives and Principles of Securities Regulation, and Financial Action Task Force Recommendations for antimoney laundering and combating the financing of terrorism.
International Monetary Fund
The financial sector in Liechtenstein provides primarily wealth-management services, including banking, trust, other fiduciary services, investment management, and life insurance. The establishment of the Financial Market Authority (FMA) as the unified, independent regulator in January 2005 is a huge step for the financial services industry. The FMA and other authorities have been successful in implementing most of the recommendations provided in the earlier 2002 IMF assessment. The authorities and the industry continue to make significant efforts to strengthen the antimoney laundering regime, though there is still work ahead.
International Monetary Fund
St. Vincent and the Grenadines (SVG) is exposed to money laundering (ML) and financing of terrorism (FT) risk related to drug trafficking and international criminal groups. The financing of terrorism has also been criminalized and is largely in conformity with the Suppression of the Financing of Terrorism (SFT) Convention. The legal and institutional framework regarding the cross-border transportation of cash and bearer instruments is largely in place. The preventive measures regime covers most of the financial and designated nonfinancial businesses and professions (DNFBP) sectors as required under the Financial Action Task Force (FATF) Recommendations.
Mr. Paul Louis Ceriel Hilbers, Mr. Arto Kovanen, and Mr. Charles Enoch
The European Monetary Institute has been working with national central banks of the European Union (EU) to prepare instruments for the operation of monetary policy in Stage 3 of European Economic and Monetary Union. Several publications describing the proposed arrangements have been issued. This paper briefly summarizes the arrangements and identifies some areas in which important decisions still have to be made or refinements introduced—including the choice of counterparties in fine-tuning open market operations; the design of reserve requirements; the signaling function of monetary operations; and payment system relationships with non-EMU participants in the EU.
International Monetary Fund

The financial sector in Liechtenstein provides primarily wealth-management services, including banking, trust, other fiduciary services, investment management, and life insurance. The establishment of the Financial Market Authority (FMA) as the unified, independent regulator in January 2005 is a huge step for the financial services industry. The FMA and other authorities have been successful in implementing most of the recommendations provided in the earlier 2002 IMF assessment. The authorities and the industry continue to make significant efforts to strengthen the antimoney laundering regime, though there is still work ahead.

International Monetary Fund

This report on the offshore financial center program contains technical advice and recommendations given by the staff team of the International Monetary Fund in response to Liechtenstein’s request for technical assistance. It provides detailed assessment of observance of the Basel Core Principles for effective banking supervision, implementation of the International Organization of Securities Commissions (IOSCO) Objectives And Principles Of Securities Regulation, and observance of the International Association of Insurance Supervisors (IAIS) core principles. It also provides the methodology for Assessing Compliance with Anti-Money Laundering and Combating the Financing of Terrorism Standards, endorsed by the Financial Action Task Force.

International Monetary Fund. External Relations Dept.

03/181: “Time-Varying Thresholds: An Application to Purchasing Power Parity,” Hyginus L. Leon and Serineh Najarian