This paper asks 1) whether reliance on Eurobond financing over the medium term is consistent with sound debt management policy and 2) whether Macedonia can reasonably expect Eurobond borrowing costs to fall in the future. The main conclusions are that Eurobond financing appears justified in the near term but over a longer horizon, the country should seek to develop domestic debt markets as a complementary funding source. For 2011–12, the government plans to fully finance its fiscal deficits though Eurobond issues.
International Monetary Fund. Western Hemisphere Dept.
This paper discusses three important sectors of Belize economy: financial, sugar market, and energy. Belize’s banking system has continued to strengthen since the 2014 Article IV Consultation in June 2014. Despite recent improvements, some banks’ balance sheets are still weak and exposed to adverse macroeconomic developments. The sugar sector makes a very important contribution to Belize’s economy. The sector is estimated to account for about 4-5 percent of GDP, 9-10 percent of total exports, 8 percent of employment, and 5-6 percent of foreign exchange earnings. But the reform of EU sugar regime, scheduled to take full effect in 2017, will most likely cause a significant drop in the EU sugar price.
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This Recent Economic Developments and Selected Issues paper highlights that after several years of relatively buoyant growth, Spain’s economy went into recession in late 1992 and through 1993, but recovered rapidly in 1994 and early 1995. Toward the end of 1995, there was a renewed slowdown, though less marked than in other European countries, followed by a gradual acceleration during 1996. Over the three-year period 1994–96, GDP growth averaged 2.4 percent a year. The employment growth picked up relatively strongly in 1995 and 1996.
Vitor Gaspar, Mr. David Amaglobeli, Ms. Mercedes Garcia-Escribano, Delphine Prady, and Mauricio Soto
The goal of this paper is to estimate the additional annual spending required for meaningful progress on the SDGs in these areas. Our estimates refer to additional spending in 2030, relative to a baseline of current spending to GDP in these sectors. Toward this end, we apply an innovative costing methodology to a sample of 155 countries: 49 low- income developing countries, 72 emerging market economies, and 34 advanced economies. And we refine the analysis with five country studies: Rwanda, Benin, Vietnam, Indonesia, and Guatemala.
This paper discusses key findings of the First Review Under the Policy Support Instrument (PSI) for Cape Verde. The PSI seeks to reduce macroeconomic risks, provides a margin of safety against exogenous shocks, and addresses the prospect of a longer-term decline in highly concessional external support. Economic and policy performance remains strong. Growth projections for 2006 and 2007 have been revised upward, international reserves are accumulating rapidly, and inflation is falling more quickly than expected. The authorities reaffirm their commitment to the PSI policy objectives.
Economic activity strengthened in Côte d’Ivoire in 2009, but it is expected to decelerate. Financial performance under the Extended Credit Facility-supported program was broadly satisfactory. Good progress was made in restructuring external debt. The program is in line with the agreed reform goals, but reflects the constraints imposed by the pre-election political situation. Tight expenditure management remains critical for the success of the program. Structural reforms are essential to strengthen growth. The risks to the program are high but manageable.
This 2009 Article IV Consultation highlights that the Dominican Republic's economy has been adversely affected by the global crisis. Output has been below potential as real GDP growth is decelerating rapidly from more than 5 percent in 2008 to an estimated 0.5 percent to 1.5 percent in 2009. Monetary authorities have responded to the crisis in a timely manner. The authorities’ program aims to limit the effects of the global slowdown on the economy while establishing the conditions for robust and sustainable growth.