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Mr. Christopher J. Jarvis, Ms. Gaelle Pierre, Mr. Benedicte Baduel, Dominique Fayad, Alexander de Keyserling, Mr. Babacar Sarr, and Mariusz A. Sumlinski
This IMF Departmental Paper presents the key areas in which countries of the Middle East, North Africa, and the Caucasus and Central Asia (MECA) can enhance governance and fight corruption to achieve their economic policy goals. It draws on advances that have already taken hold in the region.
International Monetary Fund. Middle East and Central Asia Dept.
This 2019 Article IV Consultation and Proposal for Post-Program Monitoring highlights that Iraq’s social conditions remain harsh following the war with ISIS, with slow progress at reconstruction, weak public services and a lack of job opportunities. In the absence of policy changes, a widening budget deficit is expected to divert resources away from essential investment to rebuild the country and improve public services, while eroding reserves and posing risks to medium-term sustainability. Expenditure rigidities and limited fiscal buffers imply a significant vulnerability to oil price shocks in a context of volatile prices. The fiscal and external positions are expected to continue to deteriorate over the medium term absent policy changes—with reserves falling below adequate levels and fiscal buffers eroded. In a context of highly volatile oil prices, the major risk to the outlook is a fall in oil prices which would lower exports and budgetary revenues, leading to an even sharper decline in reserves or higher public debt. Geopolitical tensions, the potential for social unrest in a context of weak public services and lack of progress in combatting corruption pose further risks.
International Monetary Fund
In this study, the general situation of money laundering and financing of terrorism is discussed. In addition, the followings are overviewed: financial sector, DNFBP sector, commercial laws and mechanisms governing legal persons, and strategy to prevent money laundering and terrorist financing. A legal framework and criminalization of financing of terrorism are also given. Confiscation, freezing, and seizing are explained under the legal framework. Various preventive measures used are also discussed in this paper. Financial institution secrecy and confidentiality are also outlined.
International Monetary Fund
This study provides a summary of the Anti-Money Laundering and Combating the Financing of Terrorism (AML/CFT) measures in Kuwait and the level of compliance with FATF recommendations, and contains how the AML/CFT system could be strengthened. A detailed assessment report (DAR) is prepared. The DAR was adopted by the Middle East and North Africa Financial Action Task Force (MENAFATF). The preventive measures adopted in financial institutions are explained. The National AML/CFT committee and the committee on Combating Terrorism (CCT) are outlined. Various preventive measures are also ascribed in this paper.
Mr. John Thornton, Fabian Bornhorst, and Mr. Sanjeev Gupta
The recent development literature stresses that countries that receive large revenues from natural resource endowments typically raise less revenue from domestic taxation, and that this creates governance problems because the lower domestic tax effort reduces the incentive for the public scrutiny of government. Our results from a panel of 30 hydrocarbon producing countries indicate that the offset between hydrocarbon revenues and revenues from other domestic sources is about 20 percent but that it is invariant to governance indicators.
Mr. Andre O Santos
The objective of the paper is to assess ownership and control links in the GCC corporate sector. The analysis focuses on the integrated ownership and network arising from ownership data available in Bloomberg and GCC stock exchanges. The paper finds that ownership is concentrated in GCC public sector institutions, holding companies, financial institutions, and family groups. The paper then considers the effect of different definitions of control on the distribution of consolidated debt. Debt concentration is maximized when the wedge between ownership and control is the largest. This is the case when the largest shareholder has at least 5 percent of total shares as defined in Zingales (1994).
International Monetary Fund

This study provides a summary of the Anti-Money Laundering and Combating the Financing of Terrorism (AML/CFT) measures in Kuwait and the level of compliance with FATF recommendations, and contains how the AML/CFT system could be strengthened. A detailed assessment report (DAR) is prepared. The DAR was adopted by the Middle East and North Africa Financial Action Task Force (MENAFATF). The preventive measures adopted in financial institutions are explained. The National AML/CFT committee and the committee on Combating Terrorism (CCT) are outlined. Various preventive measures are also ascribed in this paper.

International Monetary Fund. External Relations Dept.

04/128: “Parity Reversion in Real Exchange Rates: Fast, Slow or Not at All?” Paul A. Cashin and C. John McDermott