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International Monetary Fund

This paper discusses an assessment of Comoros’s performance Under the Program Supported by the Emergency Post-Conflict Assistance (EPCA). Overall performance under the EPCA-supported program has been broadly satisfactory. Nearly all EPCA performance indicators for end-March 2009 were observed. Revenue collection was stronger than anticipated. On the spending side, recent measures to improve expenditure management are gradually restoring order in spending operations, although continued difficulties have been experienced in managing the wage bill. All but one of the structural indicators were met.

Mr. Ernesto Hernández-Catá and C. A. François

Abstract

In January 1994, seven sub-Saharan African countries—Benin, Burkina Faso, Côte dď lvoire, Mali. Niger, Senegal, and Togo—signed a treaty establishing the West African Economic and Monetary Union (WAEMU). These countries, with the addition of Guinea-Bissau in 1997, form part of the CFA franc zone along with a second group of six African countries that participate in a similar monetary arrangement, the Central African Economic and Monetary Community (CAEMC). The CAEMC countries are Cameroon, the Central African Republic, Chad, Republic of Congo, Equatorial Guinea, and Gabon. Within eaeh subzone, monetary arrangements are managed by a separate central bank: the Central Bank of West African States (BCEAO) for the WAEMU and the Bank of Central African States (BEAC) for the CAEMC. The two subzones share a common currency, the CFA franc, which stands for the Communauté financiere africaine in the BCEAO area and for the Coopération financiere en Afrique in the BEAC area.

Mr. Ernesto Hernández-Catá and C. A. François

Abstract

During the second half of the 1980s and in the early 1990s, a prolonged deterioration of the terms of trade, a steep increase in labor costs, and the nominal appreciation of the French franc against the U.S. dollar resulted in a considerable real effective appreciation of the CFA franc (Figure 1 and Figure 2 and Appendix II).3 These developments led to a serious decline in the competitive position of the CFA franc zone and a substantial weakening of the economic situation in the region. For the WAEMU as a whole during 1990–93, real GDP growth per capita was negative, and savings and investment ratios were very low (see Table 1 and Appendix IV, Tables 4–13). The deterioration in the terms of trade, together with the slow growth of export volume, resulted in a widening of the external current account deficit to an average of 11 percent of GDP in 1990–93. The shrinking of the tax base caused by the decline in real income as well as the financial difficulties of most corporate taxpayers were reflected in a drop in the ratio of government revenue to GDP, a deterioration in the overall fiscal balance, and severe constraints on government investment. Consequently, there was a significant accumulation of both domestic and external payments arrears, a large increase in the public debt, and a decline in the net foreign assets of the BCEAO.

Mr. Ernesto Hernández-Catá and C. A. François

Abstract

The BCEAO conducts monetary policy in the WAEMU at the regional level. Its basic near-term objectives are (1) to maintain the fixed exchange rate relationship between the CFA franc and the French franc—which means that the trend rate of inflation in the area is fundamentally determined by French inflation (Box 2); and (2) to achieve a target level of foreign assets for the BCEAO. The fixed exchange rate system implies that the independence of regional monetary policy is constrained: money growth within the region is endogenously determined, and an appropriate differential must be maintained between market interest rates in the WAEMU and in France (Figure 3). Moreover, there is no scope for national monetary policies in the member countries of the WAEMU. For this reason, IMF-supported programs in these countries currently do not include targets for either base money or the central banksď net domestic assets because these variables cannot be meaningfully defined at the national level. Even if they could be defined, they would be beyond the control of the national authorities. Of course, fiscal policy—including public debt management—remains within the purview of individual countries in the WAEMU, and IMF-supported programs typically include targets for the fiscal deficit, external borrowing by the government, and net domestic bank credit to the government. Cumulative borrowing by national governments from the BCEAO is itself constrained to no more than 20 percent of their fiscal revenue in the previous year.

International Monetary Fund

The policies in a challenging political and economic environment are discussed in this study. The importance of reforms to enhance the budget process, tax administration, and expenditure control is encouraged. A higher growth path will require far-reaching structural reforms to bolster Comoros's competitiveness and increase the economy’s ability to intermediate remittances and aid inflows. The need to improve the business environment and the management of public utilities is explained in detail.

International Monetary Fund. African Dept.

This paper discusses the Union of the Comoros’ Sixth Review Under the Three-Year Arrangement Under the Extended Credit Facility (ECF) and Request for Waiver of a Performance Criterion. Performance under the ECF-supported program through end-June was broadly satisfactory. All but one of the performance criteria and all indicative targets for end-June were met. Most structural benchmarks were also met. The authorities are requesting a waiver for the nonobservance of the performance criterion on net credit to the government at end-June 2013. The IMF staff supports this request and recommends completion of the sixth and final review under the ECF arrangement.

International Monetary Fund. African Dept.
The Fifth Review under the Extended Credit Facility (ECF) Arrangement for the Union of the Comoros discusses macroeconomic policies and developments of the country. The performance under the ECF-supported program through end-December has been satisfactory. All performance criteria and indicative targets for end-December 2012 have been met, with wide margins in some cases. Macroeconomic developments have been consistent with expectations under the ECF arrangement. IMF staff has proposed modifications to the structural benchmarks, and recommends completion of the fifth review under the ECF arrangement.
International Monetary Fund
This paper describes economic developments in Comoros during the 1990s. The economic performance of Comoros during 1991–94 was characterized by real growth of about 1.6 percent a year on average, large financial imbalances, an eroding export base, and the accumulation of large domestic and external payments arrears. Public finances came under pressure as revenue performance deteriorated as a result of a narrow tax base, tax exemptions and evasion, and poor tax administration, exacerbated by rising current expenditures, which stemmed in particular from a growing wage bill.
International Monetary Fund
The policies in a challenging political and economic environment are discussed in this study. The importance of reforms to enhance the budget process, tax administration, and expenditure control is encouraged. A higher growth path will require far-reaching structural reforms to bolster Comoros's competitiveness and increase the economy’s ability to intermediate remittances and aid inflows. The need to improve the business environment and the management of public utilities is explained in detail.
International Monetary Fund
This paper reviews the Staff-Monitored Program (SMP) for the Union of the Comoros. The authorities’ program for 2005 is focused on macroeconomic stabilization. This is predicated on a consolidated budget entailing a domestic fiscal adjustment slightly above 3 percent of GDP. Monetary policy will remain circumscribed by the country’s participation in the Franc zone. Agreement in principle was reached on a SMP covering 2005. The program would support the authorities’ economic reforms and establish a track record of policy implementation that could lead to a Poverty Reduction and Growth Facility arrangement.