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International Monetary Fund. External Relations Dept.

This paper highlights that the flow of IMF-related resources to member countries was maintained at a high level during 1979, amounting to the equivalent of SDR 6,917 million, compared with SDR 4,955 million in 1978. Some SDR 3.77 billion became available to non-oil developing countries in 1979. Repurchases in the General Resources Account by all members—at SDR 4.2 billion—exceeded their purchases of SDR 1.8 billion by an unprecedented SDR 2.4 billion. These large repurchases reflected the substantial improvement in the balance of payments of some industrial member countries that had large outstanding drawings.

International Monetary Fund

The authorities view the program as providing a valuable anchor for their macroeconomic policies during a period of high economic and political uncertainty, and providing access to budget financing. The discussions for this review were delayed owing to lengthening data lags resulting from the attacks on the Ministry of Finance and the Central Bank of Iraq (CBI). With the projected increase in oil production and exports in the coming years, Iraq will be able to strengthen its fiscal and external positions and speed up the rebuilding of its institutions and infrastructure.

International Monetary Fund

This 2009 Article IV Consultation highlights that Iraq’s longer-term economic outlook is strong as oil prices and production are projected to increase markedly in the coming years. However, based on conservative oil price assumptions, the external current account and the overall balance of payments are expected to remain in deficit in 2010 and 2011. Similarly, Iraq’s fiscal position is projected to record significant, albeit declining deficits in both years, before returning to a surplus position in 2012.

International Monetary Fund
The U.S. economy continued to grow strongly over the year even in the face of a withdrawal of monetary stimulus and high oil prices. Executive Directors commended the Federal Reserve for its monetary tightening. They recognized that the financial sector has proven innovative and resilient. They cautioned that demographic and other pressures will continue to threaten long-term fiscal sustainability and economic prospects. They agreed that the country has a key role in catalyzing vigorous implementation of the cooperative strategy laid out by the International Monetary and Financial Committee.
International Monetary Fund
A financial program that aims to ensure macroeconomic stability of Iraq was discussed. The Iraqi economy was severely affected in 2009 by the decline in oil prices. Macroeconomic stability was maintained in 2010, despite a highly uncertain domestic and external environment. Policy discussions were framed by Iraq’s medium-term prospects, especially with regard to the development of its vast hydrocarbon resources. Structural reforms under the program aim at improving public financial management.
International Monetary Fund
The second review under Stand-By Arrangement and the financing assurances review highlight Iraq’s economic activity and robust growth. The authorities continue to see the improvement in security conditions, and the related recovery of oil and non-oil activity, as a window of opportunity to move toward a path of high and sustainable growth, in the context of continued macroeconomic stability. The Central Bank of Iraq (CBI) is committed to maintaining its tight monetary stance, including through its exchange rate policy.
International Monetary Fund
This paper discusses key findings of the Third and Fourth Reviews Under the Stand-By Arrangement (SBA) for Iraq. Economic growth in 2006 was below target because oil production did not increase as projected. This reflected lower-than-planned investment and the lack of security. Inflation increased to 65 percent in 2006 to December 2006. This was mainly owing to shortages of key commodities, caused in part by the ongoing insurgency. The underlying rate of inflation has also remained high.
International Monetary Fund
The 2005 Article IV Consultation for the United States reports that robust productivity growth and high corporate profits have contributed to a strong rebound in business investment and some acceleration in employment. The financial sector appears well positioned to provide continued support to the recovery. Equity prices have risen, long-term interest rates remain low, banks are well capitalized and highly profitable, and indicators of credit quality remain strong. The robust housing market has caused financial regulators to tighten oversight of home equity and other residential loans.
International Monetary Fund
This 2009 Article IV Consultation highlights that Iraq’s longer-term economic outlook is strong as oil prices and production are projected to increase markedly in the coming years. However, based on conservative oil price assumptions, the external current account and the overall balance of payments are expected to remain in deficit in 2010 and 2011. Similarly, Iraq’s fiscal position is projected to record significant, albeit declining deficits in both years, before returning to a surplus position in 2012.
International Monetary Fund
The First Review under the Stand-By Arrangement (SBA) discusses policies focused on measures to accelerate the reconstruction of the Iraqi economy while maintaining macroeconomic stability. Inflation has slowed down, and monetary and exchange rate policies have been adjusted. The Central Bank of Iraq (CBI) will increase the pace of appreciation of the dinar and keep the policy interest rate positive in real terms to keep inflation under control. Restructuring plans for the two largest state-owned banks will be developed on the basis of their finalized financial and operational audits.