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Shu-Chin Yang and Samuel Lipkowitz

This paper examines the importance of national planning for economic development of a country. The paper highlights that when World War II began, Soviet Russia was the only country engaged in systematic development planning, and then only since 1929, when its First Five-Year Plan was approved. At the end of the War, Asian countries that either had, or were about to, become independent, embraced planning to a much greater extent than countries in any other region.

International Monetary Fund. External Relations Dept.
Le numéro de juin 2008 aborde sous différents angles la crise des marchés financiers dans les pays avancés. Les articles se penchent sur les origines de la crise du marché hypothécaire des subprimes aux États-Unis et suivent à la trace ses effets de contagion à d'autres marchés. Les auteurs s'intéressent aux mesures à prendre pour prévenir les crises futures. Les autres articles sont consacrés aux règles de Bâle II en matière d'exigences de fonds propres, au découplage ou à la convergence des pays émergents et des pays industrialisés, aux flux de capitaux vers les pays à faible revenu, aux efforts en vue de réaliser les OMD, et aux interventions sur les marchés des changes. Dans les rubriques habituelles, « L’ABC de l’économie » est consacré aux marchés de gré à gré, « Paroles d'économistes » à Jacques Polak, et « Pleins feux » à la fracture numérique.
International Monetary Fund. External Relations Dept.
En el número de junio de 2008 se analiza la crisis de los mercados financieros en los países industriales desde varios ángulos. En los artículos se examinan los orígenes de la crisis estadounidense de la deuda hipotecaria de alto riesgo y su repercusión en otros mercados. Los autores también examinan las medidas que podrían adoptarse para prevenir futuras crisis. En otros artículos se analizan las normas relativas a la suficiencia de capital y el marco de Basilea II, la cuestión de si hay desacoplamiento o convergencia entre los mercados emergentes y las economías industriales, los flujos de capitales hacia los países de bajo ingreso, los esfuerzos para alcanzar los ODM y las intervenciones monetarias. En “Vuelta a lo esencial” se pasa revista a los mercados extrabursátiles y en “Gente del mundo de la economía” se traza una semblanza de Jacques Polak. En “Bajo la lupa” se examina la brecha digital entre los países.
International Monetary Fund. External Relations Dept.
The June 2008 issue tackles the crisis in financial markets in industrial countries from a number of angles. Articles look at the origins of the crisis in the subprime mortgage market in the United States and track its spillover into other markets. Then authors examine what can be done to prevent future crises. Other articles look at bank capital adequacy rules and Basel II, whether emerging markets and industrial economies are decoupling or converging, capital flows to low-income countries, efforts to achieve the MDGs, and currency intervention. Back to Basics looks at over-the-counter (OTC) markets and the People in Economics column profiles Jacques Polak. Picture This is on the digital divide.
International Monetary Fund. Research Dept.
This paper provides a survey of some major issues of incomes policy rather than an evaluation of individual countries' policies. It seeks to highlight and explain the changing emphasis of such policies in the three periods when they were widely adopted. After the War, incomes policies were implemented in several European countries, in the context of scarcities of goods and shortage of foreign exchange. Policies involving a considerable element of compulsion were then associated with other restrictions, such as direction of labor and rationing. At current high rates of inflation and of unemployment, there is growing recognition of the threat that inflation poses to political and economic institutions. Although the recent results of incomes policy have not been striking, present circumstances may be more conducive for success. Experience suggests that incomes policy may be most effective in restraining wage and price increases under conditions of less than full employment.
International Monetary Fund


This paper reviews the IMF’s Annual Report for the fiscal year ended April 30, 1985. The report highlights that by mid-1985, economic recovery in the industrial countries had been under way, although unevenly, for some two and a half years. Output growth in 1984 was the strongest in almost a decade, and inflation continued to recede. There were encouraging signs that the benefits of this recovery were spreading to the developing world. Aided by the improved external environment and the increased firmness with which adjustment policies were pursued, domestic growth rates in developing countries accelerated.