This Selected Issues paper assesses the youth unemployment problem in advanced European economies, especially the euro area. Youth unemployment rates increased sharply in the euro area after the crisis. Much of these increases can be explained by output dynamics and the greater sensitivity of youth unemployment to economic activity compared with adult unemployment. Labor market institutions also play an important role, especially the tax wedge, minimum wages, and spending on active labor market policies. The paper highlights that policies to address youth unemployment should be comprehensive and country specific, focusing on reviving growth and implementing structural reforms.
In a period when external financial aid to developing countries is increasing less rapidly than before, one question emerges ever more sharply: how can developing countries mobilize all possible domestic resources for financing their industrialization?
International Monetary Fund. Monetary and Capital Markets Department
This Technical Note discusses the findings and recommendations in the Financial Sector Assessment Program for implementation of the International Organization of Securities Commissions Objectives and Principles of Securities Regulation in Ireland. Since 2013, the regulation of securities and associated institutions and markets has witnessed considerable innovation in Ireland. As in other supervisory areas, the central bank has dedicated more staff to the supervision of securities and taken a more proactive approach. The central bank has also developed innovative ongoing systemic analysis. Certain issues raised in the 2013 assessment have not been addressed, in large part because any action would require amendments to primary legislation or EU structures or other changes.
This 2018 Article IV Consultation highlights that the Irish economy continues to grow at a rapid pace, well above the European Union average. Although headline data are distorted by the volatility of multinationals’ activity, the broad recovery of (modified) domestic demand (4 percent in 2017) underpins the expansion. Strong labor market performance brought the unemployment rate down to below 6 percent by April 2018. Although wage pressures emerged in some sectors, inflation remained subdued, mainly reflecting the pass-through of pound sterling depreciation. Public finances continued to improve on the back of strong output growth, while the public debt burden declined slightly to 68 percent of GDP. The outlook remains broadly positive but with externally-driven downside risks.
This Technical Assistance Report discusses the results of the assessment of public investment management in Ireland. To support Ireland’s economic and social development to 2040, the government is preparing a new spatial planning strategy, dubbed the National Planning Framework. This framework, and an associated 10-year capital plan—both of which will be released at the end of 2017—will support the government’s efforts to redirect infrastructure investment to areas that cut across traditional departmental and sectoral boundaries. This new strategy strongly emphasizes the development of urban areas outside Dublin, including four new Metropolitan Areas. Ensuring that the various national, sectoral, regional, and local plans are aligned, integrated, and realistic is essential to delivering on these lofty expectations.
While the use of public resources is critical to cushion the impact of the financial crisis on the euro-area economy, it is key that the entailed fiscal costs not be seen by markets as undermining fiscal sustainability. From this perspective, to what extent do movements in euro area sovereign spreads reflect country-specific solvency concerns? In line with previous studies, the paper suggests that euro area sovereign risk premium differentials tend to comove over time and are mainly driven by a common time-varying factor, mimicking global risk repricing. Since October 2008, however, there is evidence that markets have become progressively more concerned about the potential fiscal implications of national financial sectors' frailty and future debt dynamics. The liquidity of sovereign bond markets still seems to play a significant (albeit fairly limited) role in explaining changes in euro area spreads.