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International Monetary Fund

The paper analyzes the export performance and external competitiveness in FYR Macedonia. It describes the trends in the account balance, external vulnerabilities, and different approaches to estimate the equilibrium real exchange rate; and reviews economic growth experience and prospects and reveals areas of weakness. It also discusses many different factors responsible for Macedonia's high unemployment rate and examines the main factors behind the low level of intermediation.

International Monetary Fund
This Background Notes paper and Statistical Appendix presents a summary of the Croatian Tax System as of August 1994. The paper discusses the experience with incomes policies in Croatia. It highlights that incomes policy has played an important role in the Croatian stabilization program as the government has pursued the twofold objective of limiting costs in the public sector and of curbing the wage-price spiral. The paper briefly reviews developments in incomes policy and recent developments in real wages. It also describes the social safety net in Croatia.
International Monetary Fund
The paper analyzes the export performance and external competitiveness in FYR Macedonia. It describes the trends in the account balance, external vulnerabilities, and different approaches to estimate the equilibrium real exchange rate; and reviews economic growth experience and prospects and reveals areas of weakness. It also discusses many different factors responsible for Macedonia's high unemployment rate and examines the main factors behind the low level of intermediation.
International Monetary Fund
This paper reviews economic developments in the Former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia during 1994–98. In 1994–95, the authorities reasserted control over monetary policy, stabilized the exchange rate, and undertook a substantial fiscal adjustment. As a result, price stability was restored by 1996 and the decline in output was arrested. Programs for recapitalizing banks and accelerating the process of enterprise adjustment and privatization began in 1995. In 1996, the economy started to pick up, but a surge in industrial output in late 1996, partly reflecting the restarting of the oil refinery, could not be maintained.
International Monetary Fund. European Dept.
This paper mainly examines fiscal decentralization, credit-loss recovery, and unemployment in Croatia. The degree of expenditure and revenue decentralization in Croatia appears limited relative to its peers. At about 16 percent of general government spending, subnational government spending in Croatia is modest compared to other southeastern European countries and to the EU-28 average, and particularly low compared to the most decentralized countries in the EU. Croatia’s recovery since late 2014 has been moderate. Croatia’s recession lasted six years and was thus the longest among the new EU member states. Croatia’s structural and cyclical unemployment rates are very high, at about 11.5 percent and 5 percent respectively in 2015.
International Monetary Fund
This paper reviews economic developments in the Republic of Croatia during 1990–95. Real gross domestic product fell by a cumulative 30 percent over 1991–93. However, the economy began to recover in 1994 and real GDP grew by 0.8 percent. In the first quarter of 1995, real GDP was nearly 1 percent higher than the corresponding quarter in 1994. The primary impetus to growth in 1994 was from tourism, trade, transport, and communication. Tourism grew by 15 percent in 1994.
Mrs. Nujin Suphaphiphat and Hiroaki Miyamoto
While unemployment rates in Europe declined after the global financial crisis until 2018/19, the incidence of long-term unemployment, the share of people who have been unemployed for more than one year to the total unemployed, remained high. Moreover, the COVID-19 pandemic could aggravate the long-term unemployment. This paper explores factors associated with long-term unemployment in European countries, using panel of 25 European countries over the period 2000–18. We find that skill mismatches, labor market matching efficiency, and labor market policies are associated with the incidence of long-term unemployment. Among different types of active labor market policies, training and start-up incentives are found to be effective in reducing long-term unemployment.
International Monetary Fund. European Dept.

This paper mainly examines fiscal decentralization, credit-loss recovery, and unemployment in Croatia. The degree of expenditure and revenue decentralization in Croatia appears limited relative to its peers. At about 16 percent of general government spending, subnational government spending in Croatia is modest compared to other southeastern European countries and to the EU-28 average, and particularly low compared to the most decentralized countries in the EU. Croatia's recovery since late 2014 has been moderate. Croatia's recession lasted six years and was thus the longest among the new EU member states. Croatia's structural and cyclical unemployment rates are very high, at about 11.5 percent and 5 percent respectively in 2015.