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Mr. Saleh M. Nsouli and Justin B. Zulu

Abstract

This paper reviews recent experience of African countries in the design and implementation of adjustment programs supported by use of Fund resources.

Mr. Joshua E. Greene and Mr. Peter Isard

Abstract

This paper examines the problems in establishing currency convertibility- and the optimal timing- in formerly planned economies making the transition to market-oriented systems.

Mr. F. Rozwadowski, Mr. Siddharth Tiwari, Mr. David Robinson, and Ms. Susan M Schadler

Abstract

This paper evaluates progress made under ESAF-supported programs in attaining external viability, restoring economic growth, and implementing structural reforms. Performance is evaluated for 19 countries that entered ESAF arrangements by mid-1992, against the background of their initial conditions, external environment, and implementation of structural and macroeconomic policies.

Mr. F. Rozwadowski, Mr. Siddharth Tiwari, Mr. David Robinson, and Ms. Susan M Schadler

Abstract

Ce document évalue les progrès réalisés dans le cadre des programmes appuyés par la FASR pour atteindre la viabilité extérieure, rétablir la croissance économique et mettre en œuvre les réformes structurelles. Les résultats sont évalués pour 19 pays qui avaient conclu des programmes au titre de la FASR à la mi-1992, en fonction de leurs conditions initiales, de l'environnement extérieur et de la mise en œuvre des politiques structurelles et macroéconomiques.

Mr. Saleh M. Nsouli and Justin B. Zulu

Abstract

This paper reviews recent experience of African countries in the design and implementation of adjustment programs supported by use of Fund resources.1 The aggregate analysis covers primarily 1980 and 1981, while the case studies include results through the end of 1983. The paper is divided into seven parts. The first part outlines the economic background leading to the emergence or aggravation of financial imbalances in Africa before 1980. The second part reviews the role of the Fund in financing and adjustment. The third part examines the objectives of programs supported by use of Fund resources. Against this background, the fourth part analyzes the design of programs. The fifth part assesses the experience in implementing adjustment programs, with a view to determining the reasons for the difficulties that these countries encountered. The sixth part provides case studies of the recent adjustment programs of Somalia and Mali, which were supported by use of Fund resources. The conclusion summarizes the study’s main findings.

Mr. Saleh M. Nsouli and Justin B. Zulu

Abstract

In view of mounting economic and financial imbalances, a number of African countries worked closely with the Fund to design and carry out appropriate adjustment programs during 1980–81.2 At the beginning of 1980 there were 12 stand-by arrangements. The total amount approved under these arrangements was equivalent to SDR 455.2 million. Several arrangements expired and new arrangements were approved during 1980. At the beginning of 1981 there were 11 stand-by and 3 extended arrangements for a total of SDR 1.8 billion. With the increase in extended arrangements and the approval of new stand-by arrangements in 1981, the numbers of stand-by and extended arrangements in effect at the end of 1981 were 13 and 6, respectively, with the total amount committed reaching a record SDR 4.3 billion. Purchases nearly doubled in 1980 and more than doubled in 1981, reaching a record SDR 1.7 billion (Tables 2 and 3).

Mr. Saleh M. Nsouli and Justin B. Zulu

Abstract

The general objectives of adjustment programs supported by use of Fund resources are summarized in the Fund’s Articles of Agreement. These objectives include:

Mr. Saleh M. Nsouli and Justin B. Zulu

Abstract

Although there is general agreement on the objectives, each program is designed differently. There is no such thing as a “typical” Fund-supported adjustment program, although many articles have been written attempting to describe such programs by pointing out the commonality of objectives and instruments. The objectives and instruments, however, are limited and are clearly common to most countries. A program involves setting specific quantitative objectives and selecting the proper mix of instruments as well as deciding the degree to which each instrument will be used. In this sense, because no two countries share the same economic conditions, no two Fund-supported programs are alike. Each program addresses the specific problems of the country concerned, takes into account the macroeconomic relationships imposed by the institutional framework, and sets the quantitative targets for the instruments selected.

International Monetary Fund

Abstract

This chapter discusses various aspects of policy coordination in the European Monetary System (EMS). The purpose of the first paper in this chapter is to provide a survey of the process of European monetary integration, with focus on the EMS, its purposes, evolution, and the experience gathered since its establishment in early 1979. In its present stage of evolution, the EMS has developed a body of general institutional procedures to promote consistency among the policies and objectives of participating countries. The search for consistency inevitably gives rise to consequent constraints, such as those implicit in the specific rules on exchange rate and international reserve management that characterize the exchange rate mechanism (ERM). By drawing on an analysis of the role of monetary policy in balance of payments adjustment under different monetary systems and exchange rate arrangements, the second paper focuses on the crucial issues involved when an attempt is made to set rules for monetary policy coordination in a system of fixed but adjustable exchange rates such as the EMS.

Mr. Saleh M. Nsouli and Justin B. Zulu

Abstract

Performance under programs is difficult to assess insofar as the assessment depends on the yardstick selected. Guitián (1981) discusses the problem in detail, focusing on three yardsticks: (1) the performance that would have been achieved without a program; (2) the performance in the previous year or series of previous years; and (3) the targets of the programs.