Browse

You are looking at 1 - 10 of 15 items for :

  • Investments: Commodities x
Clear All
Mrs. Ruby Randall, Mr. Jorge Shepherd, Mr. Frits Van Beek, Mr. J. R. Rosales, and Ms. Mayra Rebecca Zermeno

Abstract

The Eastern Caribbean Central Bank is one of just a few regional central banks in the world and the only one where the member countries have pooled all their foreign reserves, the convertability of the common currency is fully self-supported, and the parity of the exchange rate has not changed. This occasional paper reviews recent developments, policy issues, and institutional arrangements in the member countries of the Eastern Caribbean Currency Union, and looks at the regional financial system, its supervision, and the central bank's initiatives to establish a single financial space. The paper includes a large amount of statistical information that is not readily available elsewhere from a single source.

Mrs. Ruby Randall, Mr. Jorge Shepherd, Mr. Frits Van Beek, Mr. J. R. Rosales, and Ms. Mayra Rebecca Zermeno

Abstract

Eastern Caribbean countries institutionalized political and economic cooperation through the establishment of the Organization of Eastern Caribbean States (OECS) with the Treaty of Basseterre in 1981. Two years later they set up the Eastern Caribbean Central Bank (ECCB), which replaced the Eastern Caribbean Currency Authority. The eight member countries and territories of the ECCB are Antigua and Barbuda, Dominica, Grenada, St. Kitts and Nevis, St. Lucia, and St. Vincent and the Grenadines, which are independent states and members of the IMF, and Anguilla and Montserrat, which are territories of the United Kingdom,1 The six independent OECS states and Montserrat are also members of the Caribbean Common Market, CARICOM, established in 1973.

Mrs. Ruby Randall, Mr. Jorge Shepherd, Mr. Frits Van Beek, Mr. J. R. Rosales, and Ms. Mayra Rebecca Zermeno

Abstract

The establishment of the Eastern Caribbean Central Bank (ECCB) in 1983 was the culmination of a long period of monetary cooperation dating back to 1950 when the British Caribbean Currency Board (BCCB) was created (Box 2). The BCCB, which functioned as a currency board proper and maintained a foreign exchange cover of 100 percent of the currency issue, was replaced by the Eastern Caribbean Currency Authority (ECCA) in 1965, when the Eastern Caribbean dollar (EC$) was introduced and pegged to the pound sterling at a rate of EC$4.80 = £1. Under the ECCA, the foreign exchange backing was set at 70 percent and then reduced to 60 percent in 1975. Following a series of depreciations of the pound, the Eastern Caribbean dollar was pegged to the U.S. dollar in July 1976 at the then prevailing market cross-rate of EC$2.70 per U.S. dollar. The parity has remained fixed at that level.

Mrs. Ruby Randall, Mr. Jorge Shepherd, Mr. Frits Van Beek, Mr. J. R. Rosales, and Ms. Mayra Rebecca Zermeno

Abstract

The goal of the money and capital markets development initiatives being sponsored by the ECCB is to create a “single financial space” within the Eastern Caribbean region. This is seen as the fulfillment of the objective set in Article 4. Section 3 of the ECCB Agreement requiring the Bank to “promote credit and exchange conditions and a sound financial structure conducive to … balanced growth and development.” The program seeks to achieve greater economies of scale in the region’s financial operations by integrating the regions’ financial markets. It also aims to broaden and deepen the financial markets and to enhance the effectiveness and efficiency of the mobilization of domestic and foreign savings to foster economic growth.

International Monetary Fund
In recent years, the IMF has released a growing number of reports and other documents covering economic and financial developments and trends in member countries. Each report, prepared by a staff team after discussions with government officials, is published at the option of the member country.
International Monetary Fund
In recent years, the IMF has released a growing number of reports and other documents covering economic and financial developments and trends in member countries. Each report, prepared by a staff team after discussions with government officials, is published at the option of the member country.
International Monetary Fund
This paper reports economic developments in Grenada during the 1990s. Following a strong expansion over 1987–91, real GDP grew at a slower pace in 1992 and declined in 1993, largely reflecting the adoption of adjustment measures and a severe drought. Growth resumed in 1994 owing to stronger tourism and manufacturing activity, the installation of new electricity-generating capacity, and increased output by the water company. In 1995, real GDP continued to expand at an annual rate of about 3 percent, mainly because of a recovery in agricultural output induced by higher export prices.
International Monetary Fund
This Selected Issues paper analyzes the income dispersion and comovement in the Eastern Caribbean Currency Union region. It finds that incomes are diverging, with the Leeward Islands converging to a higher income level than the Windward Islands. The paper examines the macroeconomic impact of trade preference erosion on the Windward Islands and demonstrates the substantial impact from preference erosion on growth, trade balances, and fiscal positions. The paper also analyzes the size of the informal economy in the Caribbean.
International Monetary Fund
The statistical data on the GDP, output and prices of major agricultural crops, consumer price index, summary finances of the central government, central government revenue and grants, and central government expenditure of Grenada are presented. The data on operations of the national insurance scheme, consolidated accounts of the banking system, operations of the eastern Caribbean central bank in Grenada, consolidated accounts of the commercial banks, summary balance of payments, merchandise exports, direction of trade, and related economic indices are also presented.
Mr. Paul Cashin, Mr. Montfort Mlachila, and Cleary Haines
This paper examines the macroeconomic effects of the erosion of trade preferences, with a focus on the export of Caribbean bananas to Europe. Estimates are made of the magnitude of implicit assistance provided over a period of three decades to eastern Caribbean countries through banana trade preferences. The value of such assistance rose until the early 1990s, and has declined precipitously since then. Using vector autoregressive analysis, the paper finds that changes in the level of implicit assistance have had a considerable macroeconomic impact, especially on Caribbean real GDP growth.