The IMF, an international organization of currently 184 member countries, was established in 1946 to promote international monetary cooperation, exchange stability, and orderly exchange arrangements; to provide temporary financial assistance to countries with balance of payments difficulties; and to foster economic growth and high levels of employment. To achieve these objectives, the IMF carries out three types of operational activities: surveillance, financial assistance, and technical assistance.
The IMF began to provide technical assistance to its member countries in the early 1960s in response to requests from newly independent nations in Africa and Asia. By the mid-1980s, resources devoted to technical assistance had nearly doubled. As a result of the expansion of the IMF’s membership and the adoption of market-oriented economies by a large number of countries worldwide, IMF TA activities grew even more rapidly in the early 1990s. The demand increased further in the late 1990s as significant TA resources had to be directed to countries hit by financial crisis. In addition, in recent years, the IMF has had to mount significant efforts to provide prompt policy advice and operational assistance to countries emerging from conflict situations. In fiscal year 2006 the IMF devoted 429 person years to TA activities—a 13 percent increase from FY2005 and almost 130 person years more than a decade ago.5 The delivery of IMF technical assistance over the period FY2000–FY2006 is shown in Figure 1.
Japan has provided grant contributions to support the IMF’s technical assistance to member countries since 1990. In 1997, the scope of the administered account was widened to allow for the financing of other IMF activities in Asia and the Pacific, carried out through the IMF Regional Office for Asia and the Pacific in Tokyo.
This chapter focuses on IMF’s technical assistance (TA) activities and describes Japan Administered Account for Selected Fund Activities (JSA) including its objectives, size, scope, and use, as well as assessments of its activities, with focus on fiscal year. Activities to be funded from the JSA, as well as all other IMF TA activities, are planned each year. Reflecting greater global financial stability and fewer conflict situations over the past two years, FY2006 saw a reduction in JSA allocations for crisis prevention and the rehabilitation of economic and financial institutions in post-conflict countries, and an increase in JSA allocations for sustainable debt management and poverty reduction efforts. The distribution of the commitment of JSA funds among the subject areas has broadly reflected the foregoing distribution in the overall use of IMF resources for technical assistance. Japan also provides financial support for a scholarship program for qualified Asian nationals who want to study economics at the doctoral level at one of the leading universities in North America to pursue a career at the IMF or in their home country governments. The program covers tuition and reasonable costs for two years of study; scholars are expected to cover the remaining years of study, typically through additional funding from their universities.
In 1990, Japan agreed to provide financial support for the IMF’s technical assistance to its member countries to strengthen their capacity to formulate, implement, and maintain macroeconomic and structural adjustment programs. Since then, Japan has been, and continues to be, the largest contributor to the IMF’s technical assistance (TA) activities.1 Japan’s contributions are provided through the Japan Administered Account for Selected Fund Activities (JSA).2 In addition, Japan also finances two scholarship programs—one under the JSA and the other under a separate account, the Subaccount for Japan Advanced Scholarship Program.
The Japan-IMF Scholarship Program for Asia is a program for graduate studies in macroeconomics or related fields at several leading universities in Japan. The objective of the program is to contribute to institutional capacity building of transition and developing economies, by providing educational opportunities to promising junior officials in central banks or in ministries of finance, economy, or planning in East and Central Asia and the Pacific region.13
This paper presents Selected Decisions and Selected Documents’ Supplement to Tenth issue of the IMF. This Supplement to the Tenth Issue of Selected Decisions of the IMF and Selected Documents contains decisions of a general nature adopted by the IMF since April 30, 1983, the date of publication of the Tenth Issue. Decisions of the IMF that are incorporated in the Rules and Regulations are not reproduced in this volume. The Executive Board approves the proposed method of applying the three-month rule for implementing the procedures for surveillance, set forth in EBD/83/161. The Executive Board has reviewed the document ‘Surveillance over Exchange Rate Policies’ as provided in paragraph 2 of the Executive Board Decision No. 5392-(77/63), adopted April 29, 1977, and will review it again at an appropriate time not later than April 1, 1986.