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International Monetary Fund. External Relations Dept.

This paper analyzes economic implications of high rates of population growth in the world. The paper highlights that today, the world population is growing at a rate that is 30 times as high as the average rate of growth between the first century A.D. and 1650. In less developed countries, this rate is 40 times as high. In discussing the advantages that economic development derives when human fertility is reduced, the paper shows that while some commonly held beliefs about these are correct, others are out of touch with modern expert thinking.

International Monetary Fund. External Relations Dept.

The paper discusses development of smallholder tea cultivation and a new breed of planters in Kenya. As the work of land consolidation and registration progressed in Kenya, tea planting in areas that were ecologically suitable became increasingly popular. The paper highlights that with the help of some US$3 million from the International Development Association, about 900 miles of tea collection and factory access roads are being constructed in the various tea-growing areas of Kenya, and some 15 small road maintenance units are being established and equipped.

International Monetary Fund

The Russian economy has improved after the recession, but recovery is fragile. Executive Directors appreciated the pre-crisis policy of taxing and saving oil revenues in a stabilization fund, which had created significant space for fiscal expansion, monetary easing, and extraordinary liquidity support to the banking system while helping to prevent an abrupt ruble depreciation. Directors agreed that the main challenges will be to implement medium-term fiscal consolidation, mitigate pressures for real appreciation and inflation, restore the health of the banking system, and improve the investment climate through ambitious structural reforms.