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International Monetary Fund. External Relations Dept.

Abstract

Dr. Yaga Venugopal Reddy was Governor, Reserve Bank of India, from 2003 to 2008. Subsequently, he was a member of the UN Commission of Experts to the President of the UN General Assembly on Reforms of the International Monetary and Financial System. Dr. Reddy was also a member of an informal international group of prominent persons on international monetary reforms (Palais Royal Initiative). He is Professor Emeritus at the University of Hyderabad and Distinguished Professor at the Indian Institute for Technology (IIT) Madras, as well as an honorary fellow of the London School of Economics and Political Science, and is on the Advisory Board of the Institute for New Economic Thinking (INET).

International Monetary Fund

This Selected Issues paper and Statistical Appendix focuses on two analytical approaches for judging whether the current account for Australia is sustainable. The paper implements the first approach, by asking how Australia’s net external liability position is likely to evolve over time, based on assumptions of future growth and interest rates. The paper implements the second approach by exploring the implications of a model of optimal external borrowing and lending. The main conclusions are also discussed in the paper.

Muhammad Yunus, Raghuram G. Rajan, Henry M. Paulson, Jr., Johnson Simon, James Kwak, and Andrew Sheng

Asia Leading the Way explores how the region is moving into a leadership role in the world economy. The issue looks at Asia's biggest economy, China, which has relied heavily on exports to grow, and its need to increase domestic demand and to promote global integration if it is to continue to thrive. China is not the only Asian economy that heavily depends on exports and all of them might take some cues from the region's second-biggest economy, India, which has a highly developed services sector. Min Zhu, the new Special Advisor to the IMF's Managing Director, talks about Asia in the global economy, the global financial crisis, correcting imbalances, and the IMF in Asia. And "People in Economics" profiles an Asian crusader for corporate governance, Korea's Jang Hasung. This issue of F&D also covers how best to reform central banking in the aftermath of the global economic crisis; the pernicious effects of derivatives trading on municipal government finances in Europe and the United States; and some ominous news for governments hoping to rely on better times to help them reduce their debt burdens. Mohamed El-Erian argues that sovereign wealth funds are well-placed to navigate the new global economy that will emerge following the world wide recession. "Back to Basics" explains supply and demand. "Data Spotlight" explores the continuing weakness in bank credit. And "Picture This" focuses on the high, and growing, cost of energy subsidies.

William P. Mako

For the latest thinking about the international financial system, monetary policy, economic development, poverty reduction, and other critical issues, subscribe to Finance & Development (F&D). This lively quarterly magazine brings you in-depth analyses of these and other subjects by the IMF’s own staff as well as by prominent international experts. Articles are written for lay readers who want to enrich their understanding of the workings of the global economy and the policies and activities of the IMF.

Mr. Marc G Quintyn and Mr. Michael W Taylor

Abstract

En casi todas las grandes crisis financieras de la última década --desde Asia oriental a Rusia, Turquía y América Latina-- la interferencia política en la regulación del sector financiero contribuyó a agravar una situación ya de por sí mala. Las presiones políticas no solo debilitaron la regulación financiera sino que también impidieron que los órganos reguladores y supervisores tomaran medidas contra los bancos en problemas. En este estudio se investiga por qué, para cumplir con su mandato de preservar la estabilidad del sector financiero, los reguladores y supervisores del sector financiero tienen que ser independientes --de la industria de servicios financieros, así como del gobierno-- a la vez que deben rendir cuentas.

Udaibir S. Das, Mr. Marc G Quintyn, and Michael W. Taylor

For the latest thinking about the international financial system, monetary policy, economic development, poverty reduction, and other critical issues, subscribe to Finance & Development (F&D). This lively quarterly magazine brings you in-depth analyses of these and other subjects by the IMF’s own staff as well as by prominent international experts. Articles are written for lay readers who want to enrich their understanding of the workings of the global economy and the policies and activities of the IMF.

Mr. Charles R Taylor, Christopher Wilson, Eija Holttinen, and Anastasiia Morozova
Fintech developments are shaking up mandates within the existing regulatory architecture. It is not uncommon for financial sector agencies to have multiple policy objectives. Most often the policy objectives for these agencies reflect prudential, conduct and financial stability policy objectives. In some cases, financial sector agencies are also allocated responsibility for enhancing competition and innovation. When it comes to fintech, countries differ to some extent in the manner they balance the objectives of promoting the development of fintech and regulating it. Countries see fintech as a means of achieving multiple policy objectives sometimes with lesser or greater degrees of emphasis, such as accelerating development and spurring financial inclusion, while others may support innovation with the objective of promoting competition and efficiency in the provision of financial services. This difference in emphasis may impact institutional structures, including the allocation of staff resources. Conflicts of interest arising from dual roles are sometimes managed through legally established prioritization of objectives or establishment of separate internal reporting lines for supervision and development.
International Monetary Fund. Independent Evaluation Office

Abstract

The Financial Sector Assessment Program (FSAP) is a joint IMF–World Bank initiative to provide countries with comprehensive evaluations of their financial systems.The IEO evaluation assessed the effectiveness of the FSAP from the perspective of the IMF. The main findings address the following areas: the nature of priority setting under the FSAP; the efficiency of FSAP processes and quality of the main diagnostic tools; the overall quality of FSAP content; how well the IMF has used FSAP results in its surveillance, technical assistance, and program activities; and evidence on the overall impact of the FSAP on the domestic policy dialogue, changes in policies and institutions, and market participants.