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International Monetary Fund

This Selected Issues paper and Statistical Appendix examines the sustainability of the public finances in Eritrea. The paper analyzes monetary policy and management. It points out that the period since gaining independence in 1993 has not been long enough for the authorities in Eritrea to gain a full understanding of the functioning of the economy and develop the necessary skills and expertise to successfully implement the complex mix of economic, financial, and development policies needed to strengthen growth and reduce poverty. The paper also analyzes the determinants of inflation in Eritrea.

International Monetary Fund

This Selected Issues paper and Statistical Appendix examines the sustainability of the public finances in Eritrea. The paper analyzes monetary policy and management. It points out that the period since gaining independence in 1993 has not been long enough for the authorities in Eritrea to gain a full understanding of the functioning of the economy and develop the necessary skills and expertise to successfully implement the complex mix of economic, financial, and development policies needed to strengthen growth and reduce poverty. The paper also analyzes the determinants of inflation in Eritrea.

International Monetary Fund

This paper reviews economic developments in Ethiopia during 1995–99. It provides an update on macroeconomic performance and structural reforms during FY96–FY99 (fiscal year ended July 7), when Ethiopia—as Africa’s second most populous country and one of the world’s poorest nations—continued to make strides in transitioning to a market-based economy and alleviating widespread poverty. The paper also highlights the major challenges in the areas of financial sector liberalization, civil service reform, and privatization.

David Andrews,, Lodewyk Erasmus,, and Mr. Robert Powell

This paper explores why increased aid flows require economic policymakers to confront some specific issues. Ensuring that increased aid promotes growth and reduces poverty is certainly the most important task. Empirical studies offer only mild support for aid-boosting growth. However, one study suggests that once one excludes the aid flows aimed at political and humanitarian goals, a positive net effect is observed for the remaining aid focused on economic objectives. This paper also outlines the roles to be played by development partners for making the aid being properly utilized for boosting growth.

International Monetary Fund

The Ethiopian authorities have been generally responsive to the policy recommendations from the 2008 Article IV Consultation. To help rebuild international reserves and improve external competitiveness, the authorities made another exchange rate adjustment (a 5 percent devaluation) on January 31, 2010. The overall fiscal balance during July-December 2009 indicates stronger revenue collection than programmed. Ethiopia has been resilient to the ongoing global crisis because remittances have remained stable in 2009/10, FDI has risen 20 percent, and imports are lower.

International Monetary Fund

Facing declining reserves and high inflation, Ethiopian authorities have implemented an effective macroeconomic adjustment package supported by the IMF under the rapid-access component of the Exogenous Shocks Facility. The global recession is putting renewed pressure on the external position, via weaker export receipts and remittances and slowing inward direct investment. Supporting structural measures focus on tax reform, the control of public enterprise borrowing, and the control of liquidity through indirect instruments.

International Monetary Fund

Ethiopia has successfully implemented policies to reduce inflation and rebuild external reserves. Fiscal policy aims to continue the strong focus on physical and social infrastructure investment while raising the revenue effort. The recent reframing of monetary policy to adopt a reserve money nominal anchor holds out the prospect for the end of financial repression. While the External Shocks Facility-supported program has achieved its objectives of macroeconomic stabilization and a rebuilding of external reserves, much remains to be done to sustain and accelerate growth.

International Monetary Fund

This Selected Issues paper assesses the implications of a significant increase in the flow of external financing and grants on real GDP growth in Ethiopia. The paper presents an analysis of the sources of growth during 1991/92–2003/04, as well as an assessment of potential GDP growth. The paper also seeks to assess the historical relationship between foreign aid and the performance of the external sector in Ethiopia to establish whether foreign aid inflows have had an adverse effect on the tradable goods sector in the past.